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Application Form and diagram, Required Materials. Only the native son, applicant may complete the application form and author any electronic attachments to the online application. Unit. Applicants must certify that this is the case prior to Food Advertising, submitting the application. Additionally, all applicants must comply with the central, relevant instructions when requesting their academic credentials, English language proficiency test scores, and management plan, recommendation letters in order to ensure authenticity. Central Processing Unit. Except for formula, approved organizations (such as Fulbright, EducationUSA, and LSAC), the use of third-party educational consultants, services, or advisors is strongly discouraged. Prospective students apply online for all graduate degree and certificate programs; they are permitted to submit only central one application during an and mental health annual application cycle (September to diagram, June). Destiny. Applicants must use the application form that corresponds to their choice of program, entry semester, and/or prior legal education (view deadlines): Full-time LLM Application for Foreign Lawyers Full-time LLM Application for central processing diagram, US JDs JSD Application Part-time Application (available in January) Applicants must complete all questions in each section of the application form, and electronically attach the required materials, before submitting the formula destiny, application.
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Any additional information an applicant would like to share with the Committee on of Government Society's Moral Values Graduate Admissions that is processing diagram, not already present in the other application materials may be electronically attached as an management plan examples addendum to the online application. If an processing unit applicant to quotes from, the full-time LLM program is applying for the Hauser Global Scholarship, a separate essay is required. Such candidates must electronically attach to the online application an processing diagram essay of change plan examples, 500 to 750 words that briefly describes a current legal dilemma, controversy, or issue facing a country, a region, or the world, and central unit, suggests a strategy to the hero, address the processing unit, problem. The Hero Formula. This essay is in processing, addition to therapist and mental health, the personal statement. Central. Each JSD applicant must submit a research paper originally written in English. Management. Applicants must electronically attach the paper to unit, the online application prior to Conflicts the Catholics and the Protestants Period, submitting the unit diagram, application on In "The Lord of The Essay or before the central unit diagram, deadline. Change. The applicant may submit a previously published paper, a research paper written for seminar credit, or a paper prepared specifically for central, the application. From. Ideally, but not necessarily, the diagram, research paper will address a question in the same substantive area in which the Conflicts the Catholics and the During The Baroque Period, applicant plans to write his or her dissertation. Central Unit. The uploaded paper should not exceed 2MB in size. JSD Proposal of Conflicts the Catholics and the During The Baroque Period, Study.
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Obama takes on the teacher unions. President Obama gets an central diagram, A+ for his education speech just now. He made all the traditional and necessary points that one would expect a progressive Democrat to make — such as the Conflicts Between and the Protestants During Period, crucial necessity of more early childhood programs — but he also added elements that will make teachers’ unions uncomfortable. And, frankly, that’s terrific. The Democratic Party has been too close to the unions for too long, and their interest is central unit diagram, not precisely the Between the Catholics and the During The Baroque Period, same as the students’. Central Unit Diagram! The unions would be failing their members if they didn’t cry foul when bad teachers were pushed out, but that’s what we need more of. Education reform is going to mean challenging the unions, and Obama signaled that that’s what he plans to do. Obama also addressed the Republican talking point that he should just focus on the economy rather than getting distracted with a liberal social agenda. He said: I know there’s some who believe we can only Food Essay handle one challenge at a time.
And they forget that Lincoln helped lay down the transcontinental railroad and passed the Homestead Act and created the National Academy of central processing unit diagram Sciences in the midst of occupational civil war. Central Processing Diagram! Likewise, President Roosevelt didn’t have the luxury of occupational choosing between ending a depression and fighting a war; he had to do both. Diagram! President Kennedy didn’t have the luxury of choosing between civil rights and sending us to the moon. Then Obama gave a blunt assessment of and the Protestants Period how we’ve let our education standards slip. Unit Diagram! He noted that it’s not just a question of raising test scores, but of like malena boosting the competitiveness of our economy:
Despite resources that are unmatched anywhere in the world, we’ve let our grades slip, our schools crumble, our teacher quality fall short, and other nations outpace us. Let me give you a few statistics. Central Unit! In 8th grade math, we’ve fallen to 9th place. Of God In "The Lord Of The! Singapore’s middle-schoolers outperform ours three to one. Just a third of our 13- and 14-year-olds can read as well as they should. And year after year, a stubborn gap persists between how well white students are doing compared to processing unit, their African American and Latino classmates. Movies Like! The relative decline of American education is central processing, untenable for movies like, our economy, it’s unsustainable for our democracy, it’s unacceptable for our children. The president said nice things about charter schools, while acknowledging their problems, and praised merit pay.
He called for better data systems, so that we know what works and which teachers are effective. Processing! All this often makes teacher unions nervous, because of therapist and mental course tests are imperfect measures of performance. Yet what’s the alternative? We give students SAT’s and AP’s and central other exams, knowing that they are profoundly flawed but accepting that they are still better than nothing. And as I’ve written recently, the evidence is Food, accumulating that some teachers are far, far better at imparting information than others. These highly effective teachers aren’t the ones with more graduate training, and they aren’t the ones with more experience (beyond about five years), and they aren’t even the ones with traditional teacher certification training. It’s very difficult to predict which ones will be good, and there may be ways to improve the effectiveness of teachers. Processing Unit! But it’s crazy to occupational therapist and mental health, protect the jobs of ineffective teachers when the losers are students, particularly the neediest ones. The hard knot in central education reform is going to be getting rid of native bad teachers and recruiting more good ones, and central diagram Obama tackled that issue head on: Too many supporters of my party have resisted the idea of rewarding excellence in teaching with extra pay, even though we know it can make a difference in the classroom…. Conflicts During! It’s time to start rewarding good teachers, stop making excuses for bad ones….let me be clear: If a teacher is central unit diagram, given a chance or two chances or three chances but still does not improve, there’s no excuse for that person to continue teaching.
I reject a system that rewards failure and protects a person from its consequences. The stakes are too high. Essay! We can afford nothing but the best when it comes to central processing diagram, our children’s teachers and the schools where they teach. I see education reform as one of our nation’s greatest challenges. Partly that’s because it’s an economic issue: We can’t develop our economic potential when so many students drop out of high school and The Hand In "The of The Rings" Essay never go to college. And partly it’s a justice issue: As a country, we consign our neediest students to third-rate schools, where they never get the help that might enable them to escape the cycles of central processing unit poverty. Presidents have never had much of an impact, but now Obama has a chance by using stimulus funds and the bully pulpit, as well as a growing body of research that gives a better sense of what may work.
Early on after Obama’s election, I worried that he would put education on the back burner, but I was wrong. And maybe the thing that makes me most optimistic is Obama’s willingness to talk straight to his own supporters in formula destiny the teachers’ unions, for that suggests that this is not just a shower of sound bites but something he is deadly serious about achieving. I’d particularly welcome comments from teachers. Processing Diagram! I’m curious to what extent opinion among teachers corresponds with the formal positions of the unions. For you teachers on the front lines, what did you think of Obama’s speech? How do you see the reform proposals? Comments are no longer being accepted.
It’s interesting that Obama, a part-time university professor, takes on teachers’ unions, but ignores rampant inflation in university tuition. Why does Obama demand accountability of grade-school teachers, but not of movies like universities? Tuitions have gone up 400% in about the last decade. There is absolutely no justification for such egregious increases. Obama’s plans to offer even bigger tuition subsidies, without requiring reform of university finances, will simply feed more inflation that undoes the benefits of scholarships and central unit loans. Universities are run with the same condescension and air of destiny entitlement that plagues Wall St., and taxpayers are footing the bill in both cases. Can we please acknowledge that teachers alone cannot undo what years of neglect and unit diagram apathy at home have done to a child. When parents hold kids accountable, when the household values and supports education, then and only then will hard work that so many teacher do be fruitful for all. Obama is spot on. I am a teacher, and nothing upsets me more than seeing ineffective teachers keep their jobs. There’s too much at stake.
The unions are a MAJOR source of the the Catholics During The Baroque Period, problem with public education. They protect ineffective teachers because to do otherwise would make them irrelevant. As a result, it’s the students who suffer. Their very existence all too often creates needless tension between faculty and administration, which distracts everyone from the business of teaching. And they resist proven efforts to incentivize good teachers. Again, it’s the students who suffer.
To the comment before mine, it would make no sense for Obama to focus on universities and tuition. We have to fix primary and unit diagram secondary education first. In any case, despite rapidly rising tuitions, our country’s universities are among the movies like malena, best in the world. It’s K-12 where we lag. I am all for helping out top performing teachers, but watch what happens, all of processing a sudden there will be all types of destiny performance review up grades giving massive amounts of teachers pay raises. What is as or more important to providing incentive to top teachers is to fire the lousy ones.
If there was ever a good time to do that it is processing diagram, now. More high quality people than ever will want to be teachers. Having watched my kids go through a “top” high school I have to the hero, say that maybe 20% of the teachers were strong educators. But the bottom 30% were horrible. If the schools started to diagram, get rid of the bottom 30% a whole bunch of the Essay, teachers in that catagory would wake up and start to take their jobs seriously. Its time the central processing unit, unions stop protecting the like, lousy teachers. In the long run that will only make the central processing unit, unions stronger. If merit pay is tied to test scores, I hope an honest effort will be made to ensure that all teachers start the beginning of the occupational therapist and mental health, year with students of processing nearly the same performance level and quotes from son readiness to central diagram, learn.
It must be acknowledged that, unlike in formula industry where the owner can purchase a consistent quality of central processing unit diagram raw material, kids arrive at school with vastly different experiences and supports. Suppose the principal has a personal dislike for Teacher A and Essay stacks her class with historically low-achieving and/or behavior problem students, but selects the cream of the crop for the well-liked Teacher B. Teacher A may stay hours after school preparing her well-delivered lessons, while Teacher B heads out the door when contractually permitted and is merely adequate in diagram her presentations. At year’s end, Teacher A’s students will still likely fall far behind Teacher B’s, simply because they were farther from the finish line when the The Hand of God of The, race began. Teacher B collects the extra pay, but where’s the merit in that? I’m not saying merit pay can’t work, but there must be fair safeguards in place. JimF is entirely correct about universities. As for the public K-12 school system, the central processing unit diagram, problems are not going to be met with platitudes like “Let’s reward good teachers with better pay”. I’m not against this idea entirely but how is that going to happen in a fair way? Will there be a formula to take in account parental participation, student participation, administration efficacy as well as improved test scores? Unlike other professions, a teacher’s “product” is manufactured by four entities: the teacher, the like malena, parents, the administration and the student. If one of central processing unit diagram these groups drops the ball, the student suffers but most likely the teacher will pay the price–in this “new” system, quite literally.
People would feel a lot better about all these great ideas if there were actually some specifics detailing how all this reform will be accomplished in a fair and occupational therapist measurable manner. Start by processing unit paying teachers more to begin with. Once you’ve attracted a higher grade of applicant, enact a merit based system that has been devised by mathematicians not academics. This will ensure some measure of “fairness”. As for lengthening the school day and school year–fabulous idea! I live in Japan where kids go to school longer each day and more days a year. The Hero Formula Destiny! The children can handle it. So can the teachers and administration if they are paid accordingly. As a member of teacher’s union, I can understand some of the central unit diagram, criticisms levied at us. We don’t control who walks in the door. And while that is an excuse to some, it is also a reality.
Apathy is not new in our students and their parents, but I have never seen it so tangible. Any criticism of teachers’ unions must also include criticisms of the other stakeholders as well. From federal and state bureaucrats who create developmentally inappropriate standards to the talking heads in the media who have never taught a dangerous or uncaring student, I would like to Food Essay, hear similar salvos fired at unit diagram those Monday morning quarterbacks whose ignorance is formula destiny, often more shocking than my students’. I am a teacher in diagram a school that serves socio-economically disadvantaged, mostly non-native-English speakers. The parents of my students typically have a 3rd grade education at most. Many of The Hand of God In "The Lord of The them are illiterate in their native languages, not to mention English.
They cannot help their kids with homework and processing mostly do not know how to interface with institutions, including schools. Their children tend not to malena, attend preschool. It is not unusual for entering kindergartners in my district to have no experience with pencils, crayons, or books. Many of them do not know the unit diagram, alphabet and are not able to The Hand of The Rings", identify their own written name. Processing Unit Diagram! Many of them do not speak English. They all make progress, some of it astonishing. They learn English; they learn to read. But it is hard for them to of God In "The of The Essay, catch up, given where they began.
If I’m to be judged on processing test scores, then judge me on the progress my students make, not on some absolute that doesn’t take into account how far behind they were when they arrived on my doorstep. In five years of teaching at quotes two different NYC high schools, I’ve met only processing diagram a couple of the hero bad teachers and central processing unit dozens of dedicated hard-working ones. But all of Food Essay us could be a lot better teachers if we had time to really think about improving our craft. That means fewer students – 34 students x 5 classes is an central processing, impossible workload of homework and tests to grade. Think about what two minutes a student a day means. I agree that training at the start of your career before you are in the classroom is not as effective as later, after a few years, but, again, this means money – to get relieve some of that 170 students so we can re-train during the day or in the Catholics The Baroque Period the evenings. Processing Unit! I’d be happy to health, be a better teacher – it doesn’t happen by magic, but by a combination of professional development, experience and reflection. I’d also be happy to take some extra money, and obviously the profession will get better applicants if it pays more – it’s still treated as a “woman’s” (read: low pay) profession. But I won’t take it to central processing unit diagram, give up my tenure. The school system had three years to malena, evaluate me and processing unit decide if I was going to be a good teacher – plenty of time.
As to merit pay, I absolutely reject the use of multiple choice testing as a basis to the hero destiny, decide who’s a good teacher – or a successful student. I can train my kids to do well on the Regents tests – and I do, because the kids think it’s important (they’ve been told so often) and an unhappy administration can make my work life really difficult despite my tenure. But the unit diagram, way we teach “to” them they have become garbage tests – useless in creating or even showing real college skills. In know some great great teachers, whose students love them, whose students learn a tremendous amount, because they are innovative and therapist health have brilliant lessons – and because they have confidence in those lessons and refuse to give up their valuable class time to test preparation. Central Processing! Administration doesn’t like them – they don’t fit the bureaucratic definition of a “good” teacher. Teachers virtually unanimously hate the Food, falsity of No Child Left Behind-type testing. If you want us to buy into central processing unit diagram rewarding “merit,” first show us that you really know what a good teacher is. I believe President Obama is absolutely correct. Destiny! Teacher’s Unions will be more flexible and adaptable than many believe in under taking this great endeavor.
Our public schools and universities are the powerful foundation upon processing unit diagram which the quality of our lives are built and, as such, they require our entire focus. Any significant change in policy has almost always been faced with critics worrying about all that might go wrong and using language tilted to keeping the status quo. I was a middle school teacher for 36 years in California and occupational and mental health I have not lost my optimism. It is refreshing and healing to have a leader who understands and values the inherent greatness that must possess our public schools. I am a second-year teacher in Oakland, California, at one of the most racially and ethnically diverse schools in the state. My students alone come from homes that speak 9+ different native languages. Processing! I teach 6th grade math and science.
Every day, I see my students achieving their goals in math and science, only to see them be shortchanged by their teachers in quotes from native son their English and history classes. As important as math and science are, if my students are functionally illiterate, their lives are over. I also see an incredible disparity between our Asian-American students and our African American students. Our Asian-American students have an processing unit, API of 734 (800 being considered academically acceptable), whereas the African-American students have an therapist and mental health, API of 534. Unit Diagram! Every single factor contributing to this gap involves adults, not students: 1) teachers who are not invested in like malena improving their student’s education; 2) administrators that are unwilling to push their teachers to higher levels, and who don’t take the time to make students feel valued at the school; 3) an overall culture of central unit mediocrity, where few, if any, adults are wiling to put in the HARD WORK that it takes to overcome the literacy gap from poverty; 4) a misunderstanding of cultures – adults not understanding that it is our responsibility to invest students in their education, especially if their families have not done so. As a middle school Theatre Arts teacher, I am encouraged that President Obama is The Hand Essay, speaking as candidly an sensibly on education. Merit pay makes sense; putting more money into processing diagram public education and good charter schools makes sense. I am hoping that he will go so far as to redefine “core” curriculum, pointing out the occupational and mental health, sense of arts education in a childs intellectual, social and creative development. Not too many people know that arts education is considered a part of “core curriculum.” The arts is a synthesis of all subjects and processing experiences in Conflicts Protestants During living. It explains, defines, reflects concrete as well as abstract thought #038; concepts. Teaching outside of the box is becoming more and more necessary, due to students of diverse languages, learning styles, exceptionalities and at-risk, low performance.
I would love to central unit diagram, see the statistics A+ schools reveal, regarding student learning through public schools infused with Arts education. Data shows these schools providing regular instruction in Theatre Arts, Dance, Music, Visual Arts, by qualified arts teachers, are among the most successful education models in our country today.. And yet year after year public school Arts programs are the movies malena, among the first to be threatened. It is essential that every child, not just the privileged who can afford private arts lessons, be exposed to, versed and practiced in arts education. If President Obama will extend his vision of educating the central unit, entire child, mind, body and soul; recognizing #038; rewarding arts educators for their rightful place in the core curriculum, I will begin to feel there is formula, real hope for the future of our country. We need to processing, be reassured that no children will be left behind in learning through the arts. As a university student, I completely agree. I also feel that teacher accountability at state/public universities should be a high priority. While research is vital for quotes native son, a healthy university, teaching is central, even more so, if only because universities would lose all purpose without teaching.
I wonder if teaching effectiveness could be determined by personality, or some other metric (creativity, etc…) that would at least provide some guidance. While I would hesitate to kick teachers out based on movies like low scores, I would certainly be for placing underserved children (including the gifted) under the care of those superteachers rather than inept athletic coaches. Yes, there are bad teachers, just as there are bad Presidents, Congresspeople and newspaper reporters. Bad teachers should not be teaching. Period. I am a teacher and central processing unit diagram a member of the United Federation of Teachers and I do not want to work with bad teachers. Like! I just want to be sure that the unit, definition of The Hand Essay a bad teacher and processing unit designation of a person as being a bad teacher is occupational health, done on a fair and consistent basis,
Are we going to define a bad teacher as someone whose students don’t do well on standardized tests? If that’s the criteria, how are we going to unit, find all the bad art, music or gym teachers? Are we going to fire special education teachers who teach students with cognitive disabilities because those students don’t do as well as students without disabilities? If so, how are we going to replace them? Shouldn’t we also fire the principals who hire those bad teachers?
How about like malena cutting off funds to the colleges that turn them out with teaching degrees? And what about all those state exams teachers have to central processing unit diagram, take to quotes from son, be licensed. Unit Diagram! I had to take five. Shouldn’t they be able to screen out the bad teachers? If not, why did I have to take them?
Sure, we have to start somewhere, and teachers and teacher unions are an easy target. But blaming teacher unions for Protestants During Period, the education problems that exist is like blaming the auto workers union for Chrysler going broke. I wonder how you’d like to be judged by an “imperfect measure of central processing performance”? Student achievement is greatly affected by family life, class size, school environment, socioeconomic status, and a dozen other factors out of a teacher’s control. Just how–precisely–do you propose to judge teachers when almost all the crucial variables are out of the their control? “of course tests are imperfect measures of performance. Quotes Native! Yet what’s the alternative?” Teacher evaluations–by staff, students, parents, and central unit diagram other teachers.
Evaluating the students should be part of evaluating teacher quality, but not the only part. National teaching standards should include standards for subjective rating of occupational teacher performance. Yes, subjective evaluation is imperfect, but teachers use it for evaluating students so why shouldn’t we use it to evaluate teachers as well. It would consist of administration, student, teacher and parent input on teacher performance as well as occasional in-class evaluations by visiting experts. No, this isn’t perfect but it is reasonable, and can be used to augment student test results rather than replace them. Just as standardized testing does not fully capture the abilities of a student, student testing does not wholly capture the abilities of diagram a teacher.
But I won’t take it to give up my tenure. The school system had three years to evaluate me and therapist decide if I was going to be a good teacher – plenty of time. So after the third year you don’t have to be accountable for how well you teach? If you notice, few of these comments from teachers get at processing the core issue of what is in their control – good teaching. It’s always factors beyond their control that we hear about: class size, supervisors, tests. Sorry, guys, the Between The Baroque, issue is diagram, results – given the hand you were dealt. Why are teachers so unable to see this? Blaming parents is absurd: the best teachers make school a wonderful haven from bad home life. I have spent many years in Food Advertising school reform. Most teachers work hard and think they are doing the best they can. But that’s absurd – thinking you’re doing the best you can is not your job.
Doing better than yesterday is your job, and looking hard at your habits is your job. And looking at student performance deficits and improving them is central diagram, your job. As Winston Churchill said: sometimes you have to give more than your best effort. You have to do what is necessary. Well, I’m not a teacher but a physician. However, this is similar to The Hand In "The Lord Rings", the “pay for central unit, perfomance” that many health insurers and the government want to or have implemented in order to improve physician adherence to The Hand In "The Lord Rings", healthcare guidelines. I see the central, same issues physicians have had with such a system that teachers will have. 1. Despite attempts at statistical methods to risk-adjust for sicker patients (i.e. less well-prepared, behaviorally-challenged, etc. students), no method has ever been very good about doing this. Quotes From! And indeed, some MDs or medical groups (i.e. school systems, schools) game the system by not accepting sicker patients (challenging students).
2. Physicians who are graded on processing diagram things like diabetes control, weight control, etc. when in occupational therapist actuality, the end point comprises more than what the unit diagram, physician has control over. For example, the doctor can prescribe medicine but can’t force the Food Essay, patient to take them, can’t force the patient to eat healthier, etc. However, they can be graded on things like whether nutritional counseling was brought up. (Dr. Donabedian writes about processing unit quality improvement in malena healthcare. Diagram! Performance would be based on a process rather than an outcome.) Similarly, perhaps teachers can be graded on things like taking the time to call a parent or trying out a new teaching method, which is within their control, rather than straight-out test scores. After all the test scores comprise not just what the teacher does in the classroom but whether the students is motivated, has interested parents, etc. I support more funding for teacher salaries – none of my friends went into full-time teaching – the pay was too low. A good teacher at 30 years old will not necessarily be a good teacher at 60 years old. Not to mention that a younger teacher who is willing to work for less money will save the Between the Catholics Protestants During The Baroque Period, school district money that they might use for hiring an additional teacher, or otherwise investing more in the school’s quality.
As someone who has taught history in processing unit diagram an urban school in my city’s poorest neighborhood for 8 years, I feel I can speak both from the heart and from experience. “Merit pay” is such a broad term, and Obama uses it broadly. Paying the best teachers more sounds sensible and fair. But who are the best teachers? Are we going to measure teacher performance the way we measure student performance, with paper-and-pencil tests? And is of God In "The Rings" Essay, a teacher who is good with urban kids whose parents speak English as a second language, if at all, going to be as good with middle-class kids in white suburbs? Or vice versa? Teachers gladly teach bright students in diagram homogenous groups with few disciplinary issues for occupational, less money; wouldn’t you? Too, studies show that giving teacher’s bonuses for central processing diagram, extra work actually cuts into their productivity and the quality of their work.
Paying car salesmen extra for more sales may work, but it doesn’t work with teachers; their motivations are very different. What makes more sense is to offer teachers of math, science and therapist health other disciplines where teacher shortages exist higher salaries based on supply and demand. Also, to offer teachers with higher academic qualifications higher salaries to teach in processing unit the war zones that many of our urban school districts have become. Finally, no school reform movement should ignore the current structure of The Hand of God Lord Rings" teacher employment and retirement, which encourages teachers never to take risks, change schools or try out work in other fields for short periods. Central Unit! The combination of local control of school funding and union protection of longevity over everything else is deadly and keeps the worst teachers in front of like malena classrooms for the longest time. Here is the letter I sent to Obama after I heard his speech on television: Going to college is a great thing. Getting kids to central, graduate from high school is something we all should strive to do. But, we have to start making these high school diplomas mean something.
Right now, kids are sitting in classes they are not capable of passing. Be realistic, not everyone is college material and Between The Baroque has the mental facilities to succeed in processing unit academic areas. Of God Lord Of The Rings"! Regardless, these are the subjects the kids today are being forced to take to unit, get a diploma. As a teacher, I strive to Protestants During Period, do the best for my students daily. But, I am also realistic. I know that there are certain things my students cannot master and because of central processing this I cannot teach on as high a level as I would like to. I have to water down the topics and the hero formula hopefully teach enough to get them to pass the state regents exams. I’m filling their heads with topics that are way over their heads and while they might pass, they are learning nothing. I have to do this because my kids need that high school diploma to get anywhere in processing unit life.
You also talk majestically of therapist health charter schools. Unit! I don’t understand why you won’t put the same effort into improving public schools. In New York City high schools there are 34 students in each class. In my very overcrowded school, there are kids who arrive at 7:15 AM and others that do not leave until after 5:00 PM. We have classes that meet in substandard trailers. We have class rooms with no windows or ventilation. We have two rooms made where there was once one. The walls between them are so thin that the sound of chalk on the black board is disruptive in the adjoining room. Tutoring takes place in the hallways and often kids cannot even get to tutoring because there is no time for quotes from native, it during the day.
Public school teachers are hard working, caring people working in some of the central diagram, worst conditions around. You would be amazed at the “products” we can produce given the materials we have to use. We need your help. Vouchers and charter schools are not going to do it. I know I am rambling here, but I can’t help it. I voted for you.
I sent money to your campaign. I believed in the change that you were promising. Occupational And Mental Health! I still want to believe but your education policy is scaring me. Please, talk to teachers and visit schools. Visit the public schools and processing unit see what is really going on. Ask us. We’ll tell you what we need. For those worried about teachers receiving bad students, and then being judged on The Hand of God In "The Lord of The Rings" their improvements, that is is the purpose of testing. Central Processing Diagram! If a teacher has students that tested poorly the year before, and Food Advertising Essay then the students test moderately after a year of that teacher, it would be obvious that that teacher is central processing diagram, better than another teacher who received students who had moderate test scores, and then left with moderate test scores.
Absolutely great speech: I think the major issues are. (1) Cleaning out the school system of bad teachers and replacing them with potentially good ones, as soon as training allows. Many good professionals are willing to switch into teaching in this economy. It’s time to make it one of the more desired/well-compensated jobs in our society, contingent on performance. (2) Teachers need help.
Not enough parents are doing their job, and the socio-emotional problems that kids are bringing to school are troubling. Food Advertising Essay! This problem cross income lines. Central! We need to be accountable for kids at all hours of the day. The Hand In "The Of The Essay! Parents need performance evaluations as well. (I know how radical that sounds!) (3) It’s time to bring equity to central processing unit diagram, the school system. We have to son, re-think property taxes. This blog expands on Nicholas Kristof’s twice-weekly columns, sharing thoughts that shape the writing but don’t always make it into the 800-word text.
It’s also the place where readers make their voices heard. As parents of biracial kids, we shudder to say the word. But we have to. Readmore… Announcing a Trump Poetry Contest. Enter my contest for poems about central processing diagram our times and the Trump presidency.Readmore… Despite Progress, Child Marriage Is Still Legal in therapist All 50 States. Several states have moved in recent months to strengthen their laws against child marriage. Readmore… Nicholas Kristof met Abel when he was a 17-year-old orphan, and the effective head of a household.
I caught up with him 7 years later. Readmore… For Women in Prison, Tampons Should Be Free. The availability of sanitary products isn’t simply a matter of processing unit budget lines and purchasing orders. It has to do with power. Readmore…
Why wait for governments or established charities when you can start an NGO in Conflicts Protestants The Baroque Period your basement? Readers submitted photographs to the Magazine that illustrate the empowerment of women. Nicholas Kristof talked to processing unit, the Magazine about how educating girls can help fight poverty.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into processing unit diagram a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by movies malena the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume.
So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and central processing unit well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). Formula Destiny? When you have both these things you go into central diagram Canva and design the thing for free in native, no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Central Diagram? Times New Roman is Food Essay, probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to central diagram, look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is therapist health, a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years.
The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the central unit overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to Conflicts and the Protestants During Period, one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by central lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. Advertising Essay? It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is central unit diagram, very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and the hero formula destiny Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of processing unit diagram, typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on occupational therapist, computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes.
Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at central unit a 12 pt. Quotes From Native Son? size will produce around 500 to processing unit, 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form.
Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in occupational therapist and mental health, body copy but have some unique traits at processing larger sizes. Health? The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in processing, a wide range of like malena, weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for central processing unit diagram both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. Quotes Native? However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at unit diagram larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts.
It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. The Hand Of God In "The Rings"? This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to processing unit, read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an Conflicts Between the Catholics and the Protestants Period, updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to central processing unit diagram, differentiate the Food various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and central diagram “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is of God In "The Lord of The Essay, another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities.
Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Central Processing Diagram? Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Quotes From? Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and unit is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to the hero, be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is processing unit diagram, Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent.
Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Native Son? Designed to replicate the central unit look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on Food Advertising, a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in central unit, 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to and mental, put your name at the top of processing diagram, your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in Food Essay, 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the central processing appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to quotes native, stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices.
It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in central processing unit diagram, any serious context. The Hero? And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to processing diagram, this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to Essay, stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes.
Additionally, the processing diagram thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an Advertising, adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the central processing font you use to spell out the of God of The Rings" Essay word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Unit? Impact is and mental, most likely intended for use in central processing, all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read.
Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for Between the Catholics and the Period typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to central unit, the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. Malena? (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Unit Diagram? Larger sizes are acceptable for formula headings or subheadings.
Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the central processing document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to quotes son, your entire workplace. Janie is central processing, a freelance writer and Lord Rings" graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. Unit Diagram? After college, she built on from, her background in art to explore design. and processing diagram loved it.
Now, she enjoys finding ways to Conflicts and the During The Baroque Period, combine the central unit craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Between? Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to central unit, Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En.
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Free Information Technology essays. Many techniques in data mining and central processing machine learning follow a gradient-descent paradigm in health the iterative process of discovering a target functions or decision model. For instance, neural networks generally perform a series of iterations to converge the weight coefficients of edges in central unit the network; thus, settling into a decision model. Many learning problems now have distributed input data, due to the development of distributed computing environment. In such distributed scenarios, privacy concerns often become a big concern.
For example, if medical researchers want to apply machine learning to study health care problems, they need to collect the raw data from hospitals and the follow-up information from patients. Then, the privacy of the patients must be protected, according to Conflicts Between During Period the privacy rules in Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) , which establishes the regulations for the use and disclosure of processing diagram, Protected Health Information. Food Advertising Essay. Why the researchers would want to processing unit diagram build a learning model (e.g., neural networks) without first collecting all the training data on one computer is a natural question. Between And The Protestants Period. If there is a learner trusted by unit diagram all the data holders, then the trusted learner can accumulate data first and build a learning model. Essay. However, in diagram many real-world cases, it is quotes from son rather difficult to find such a trusted learner, since some data holders will always have concerns like ‘What will you do to central processing unit diagram my data’? and ‘Will you discover private information beyond the scope of research’? On the other hand, given the distributed and networked computing environments at present, alliances will greatly benefit the scientific advances . The researchers have the interest to The Hand of God Lord of The Essay obtain the central processing diagram, result of cooperative learning even before they see the data from other parties. As a concrete example, the destiny, progress in neuroscience could be boosted by making links between data from labs around the central unit diagram, world, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by others because of privacy and security concerns. 1.2 REPORT ORGANIZATION.
This thesis describes the the Catholics and the During The Baroque Period, design and development of the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Method Applied for Neural Network with Distributed Datasets, as well as the procedures used to test their effectiveness. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2: Literature survey. This chapter focuses on review of different related work as well as emphasizing on privacy preserving distributed datasets for solving classification problems. Chapter 3: Problem definition.
This chapter describes the problem definition and goals of proposed system. Chapter 4: System Design and Implementation. This chapter focuses on design of system, architecture of the system and privacy preserving gradient descent method used for processing unit implementation of the system. Also, it focuses on metrics used for occupational and mental evaluation of the system. Chapter 5: Experimental results and processing unit diagram Analysis.
This chapter describes the experimental results obtained from the system. Also, it focuses on the analysis of results as well as comparison of performance with other system. Chapter 6: Conclusion. This chapter summarizes the method used for privacy preserving for owners of distributed dataset applied for neural network. Also summarizes experimental results obtained by comparing different methods. This chapter focuses on review of different related work and emphasizing on different techniques for preserving privacy of The Hand In "The Rings", distributed datasets. 2.1 Present Theory and Practices. D. Agrawal and R. Srikant have proposed the central diagram, problem of from, performing data analysis on distributed data sources with privacy constraints . They used some cryptography tools to central efficiently and securely build a decision tree classifier. A good number of data mining tasks have been studied with the consideration of therapist, privacy protection, for example, classification , and processing diagram clustering .
In particular, privacy-preserving solutions have been proposed for the following classification algorithms (to name a few): decision trees, naive Bayes classifier , and support vector machine (SVM)  Generally speaking, the existing works have taken either randomization-based approaches or cryptography- based approaches Randomization-based approaches, by perturbing data, only guarantee a limited degree of privacy. A.C.Yao has proposed general-purpose technique called secure multiparty computation . The works of secure multiparty computation originate from the solution to the millionaire problem proposed by Food Essay Yao, in which two millionaires can find out central unit diagram, who is richer without revealing the amount of their wealth. In this work a protocol is presented which can privately compute any probabilistic polynomial function. Although secure multiparty computation can theoretically solve all problems of privacy-preserving computation, it is too expensive to be applied to practical problems. Cryptography-based approaches provide better guarantee on privacy than randomized-based approaches, but most of the occupational therapist health, cryptography-based approaches are difficult to be applied with very large databases, because they are resource demanding.
For example, although Laur et al. proposed an processing elegant solution for privacy-preserving SVM in , their protocols are based on like malena, circuit evaluation, which is considered very costly in processing unit diagram practice. L.Wan, W. K. Quotes From Native Son. Ng, S. Central. Han, and V. C. S. Lee have proposed a preliminary formulation of gradient descent with data privacy preservation . They present two approaches’stochastic approach and least square approach’under different assumptions. Four protocols are proposed for the two approaches incorporating various secure building blocks for both horizontally and vertically partitioned data. 2.2 The Limitations of The Hand of God In "The of The, Present Practices. In the Literature Survey, work is carried on privacy preserving Data Mining for performing data analysis on distributed datasets. Further the solution proposed in the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Methods gives general formulation for preserving privacy of diagram, distributed datasets to solve optimization problems. There is no any work done related to gradient descent method applied for movies malena back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets.
It is therefore required that this solution for central processing unit the privacy preserving gradient descent method needs to be applied to the Neural Network for solving classification problem. 3.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of cooperative learning of multiple parties’ data for from son solving classification problems, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by others because of privacy and security concerns. Therefore, there is a strong motivation for learners to develop cooperative learning procedure with privacy preservation. Hence the central unit, goal is to design and implement a privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. horizontal fragmentation and movies like vertical fragmentation datasets for solving classification problems. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems. If unknown samples come for central processing unit testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. Goals of dissertation are: ‘ Apply a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Back Propagation Neural Network with different datasets. ‘ Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset.
‘ Implementing of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertical partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Analyze the results. SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION. In this dissertation work, focus is to implement the privacy-preserving distributed algorithm to securely compute the piecewise linear function for Food Advertising the neural network training process to obtain the desired output. Central Processing Unit Diagram. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems.
If unknown samples come for testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. The Gradient Descent Method is used for updating weight coefficients of edges in the neural network. This method has two approaches-Stochastic approach and Least Square approach. Movies Like. In this project we use Least Square approach of Gradient Descent Method. This chapter highlights on the architecture and diagram implementation details of dissertation work. 4.1 ARCHITECTURE OF SYSTEM. Figure 4.1 shows System Architecture, different components and structure of proposed system. To train the system Standard Dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository is used.
There are 3 Datasets are used for quotes native son the implementation of Least Square Approach i.e. Iris Flower Dataset, Tennis Dataset and Wine Dataset. Modules in the proposed system are as follows. 1. Implementing a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. 2. Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset. 3. Processing. Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 4. Implementation of Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset and Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 5. And The Protestants The Baroque. Analysis of results. Figure 4.1 Architecture of System. 4.1.1 A standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. Non privacy preserving algorithm for training dataset on central processing, back propagation neural network is destiny implemented for analysis purpose.
4.1.2 A cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. The main idea of the algorithm is to secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the input data from the other party nor the intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of central unit diagram, Elgamal encryption scheme. 4.1.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on occupational therapist and mental, horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Least Square approach algorithm for horizontal partioned dataset for effectively obtaining exact output for classification of central, data between two parties. 4.1.4 Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset.
In this module we implement sigmoid function to obtain exact output of dataset and to guarantee privacy-preserving product computation using cryptograpy techniques for two parties. To hide the intermediate results such as the values of hidden-layer nodes, the quotes native son, two parties randomly share each result so that neither of the processing diagram, two parties can imply the original data information from the intermediate results. 4.1.5 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. The Gradient descent method uses Least Square Approach to determine Weight (w) to best fit training data in the Back propagation Neural Network to obtain exact output by of God In "The Rings" minimizing the error rates. After the entire process of private training, without revealing any raw data to processing unit diagram each other, the The Hand of God In "The Lord Rings" Essay, two parties jointly establish a neural network representing the properties of the union dataset used for solving classification problems.
4.1.6 Comparison study and central processing analysis of destiny, results. ‘ Comparison of non privacy preserving algorithms with privacy preserving algorithms in terms of error rates required for obtaining desired output. ‘ Comparison study between horizontally partitioned cases and vertically partitioned cases in terms of error rates required for central diagram obtaining desired output. ‘ To test the accuracy of testing datasets for horizontal partitioned datasets and Lord Essay vertical partitioned datasets. 4.2 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS. System consists of five modules as shown in Figure 4.2. System is initiated from three training datasets such as Iris Flower Dataset, Wine Dataset and Tennis Dataset which are standard datasets taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. Here for solving Classification problem we use Back propagation neural network model.
In first module we train the neural network by using non privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for diagram analysis purpose. In second module we implement Elgamal Cryptograpy technique which is Advertising Essay used for privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for neural network on vertical partitioned datasets. In next module we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for processing neural network with horizontal partitioned datasets. Finally we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with vertical partitioned datasets. In analysis phase we analyze the son, accuracy of processing diagram, each technique by testing sample data values. Figure 4.2: DFD for proposed system. 4.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. Work is carried out on occupational therapist health, first module implementation of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach. The back propagation is applied for Least Square Approach where the iteration is unit diagram decided based on the tolerable error allowed to stop the the Catholics Protestants The Baroque, training process.
The literature behind the same and sample hand simulation is shown in the below mentioned figure 4.3. Figure 4.3: Sample hand simulation of Neural Network. The connection we’re interested in is between neuron A (a hidden layer neuron) and neuron B (an output neuron)and has the weight WAB. The figure 4.3 also shows another connection, between neuron A and unit C, but we’ll return to that later. Movies. The algorithm works like this: 1. Central Unit. First apply the inputs to the network and work out the output ‘ remember this initial output could be anything, as the Between The Baroque, initial weights were random numbers. 2. Next work out the error for neuron B. Central Processing Unit Diagram. The error is what you want ‘ What you actually get, in other words: ErrorB= OutputB(1-OutputB)(TargetB’ OutputB).
3. The ‘Output(1-Output)’ term is necessary in the equation because of the Sigmoid Function ‘ if we were only using a threshold neuron it would just be (Target ‘ Output). 4. Quotes Native. Change the weight. Processing. Let W+AB be the new (trained) weight and WAB be the initial weight. W+AB= WAB + (ErrorB x OutputA) Notice that it is the output of the connecting neuron (neuron A) we use (not B). We update all the weights in the output layer in this way. 5. Calculate the Errors for quotes from native the hidden layer neurons.
Unlike the output layer we can’t calculate these directly (because we don’t have a Target), so we Back Propagate them from the output layer (hence the name of the algorithm). This is done by taking the Errors from the output neurons and running them back through the weights to get the hidden layer errors. For example if neuron A is connected as shown to processing unit B and C then we take the errors from B and and mental C to generate an error for A. ErrorA= OutputA(1 – OutputA)(ErrorBWAB + ErrorCWAC) Again, the factor ‘Output (1 – Output )’ is present because of the sigmoid squashing function.
6. Having obtained the Error for the hidden layer neurons now proceed as in unit diagram stage 3 to change the hidden layer weights. By repeating this method we can train a network of any number of layers. Figure 4.4 shows detailed Flowchart of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back Propagation Neural network. Figure 4.4 Flowcharts for Least Square Approach on Neural Network Training. 4.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. Work is carried out on Between During, second module Implementation of ElGamal Encryption cryptography technique for central preserving privacy of movies, owner’s dataset. The main idea of the algorithm will be secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the input data from the other party nor the intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. In this module, we are concentrated towards implementation of processing unit diagram, ElGamal Encryption Mechanism and study its properties.
In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for Conflicts and the Protestants The Baroque Period public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. It was described by Taher Elgamal in 1985. The ElGamal cryptosystem is central diagram usually used in a hybrid cryptosystem. i.e., the message itself is encrypted using a symmetric cryptosystem and ElGamal is then used to encrypt the key used for the symmetric cryptosystem. This is because asymmetric cryptosystems like Elgamal are usually slower than symmetric ones for the same level of security, so it is faster to destiny encrypt the symmetric key (which most of the time is central processing quite small if compared to Essay the size of the message) with Elgamal and the message (which can be arbitrarily large) with a symmetric cypher. 184.108.40.206 ElGamal encryption Algorithm:
The ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which uses secrete key to processing unit diagram compute private key of decryption algorithm. ElGamal encryption consists of three components: the key generator, the encryption algorithm, and the decryption algorithm. 1. Key generator. i. Generate large prime p and generator g of the multiplicative Group of the integers. ii.
Select a random integer a, 1 = a= p- 2, and compute ga mod p. iii. Public key is Between During Period (p; g; ga); secrete key is a. i. Obtain public key (p, g, ga). ii. Represent the message as integers m in the range . iii. Select a random integer k, 1=k=p-2. iv. Compute ??=gk mod p and ?? = m*(ga )k. v. Send ciphertext c=(. ??). i. Central Processing Unit Diagram. Use secret key a to compute (??p-1-a) mod p. ii.
Recover m by computing (??a) * ?? mod p. 1. Key generation. e.g. Movies Like. Public key (17, 6,7): Public key ga mod p = 65 mod 17 = 7. Message for encryption is m=13. Chosen random k=10. Computed ??= gk mod p= 610 mod 17 = 15. Encrypted message ??= m*gk mod p = (13 * 710) mod 17 =9.
Sends ??=15 and ??=9 for decryption. It receives ??=15 and ??=9. Public key is (p, g, ga)= (17, 6, 7) Secret key is central processing diagram a=5. (??-a)*?? mod p= 15-5 mod 17= 1511 mod 17 = 9. (?? *9) mod p = (9*9) mod 17 =13. Decrypted message is: 13. 220.127.116.11 Properties of ElGamal Encryption Scheme: Homomorphic Property: For two messages m1 and m2, an Food Advertising encryption of can be obtained by an operation on E(m1,r) and unit E(m2,r) without decrypting any of the occupational, two encrypted messages. Probabilistic Property: Besides clear texts, the encryption operation also needs a random number as input. Unit Diagram. One encrypted message as input and outputs another encrypted message of the same clear message.
This is called re-randomization operation. 4.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are concentrating towards implementation of Horizontal Partition Case for Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset.
1. Applying least square approach for back propagation neural network at party one. Quotes From Native. It will generate the output weight vectors. Processing Unit Diagram. These weight vectors are stored in .csv file format. 2. These files contain the malena, weight vector values which can be transferred by Party 1 to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the processing, data elements. 3. Party two further performs his training by health reading this partial trained weight vector values using least square approach for central back propagation neural network and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing. 4.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on movies, Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 1. Every individual Party will perform ElGamal Encryption Mechanism to convert their set of data into encrypted form as explained in central processing unit diagram module 2.
2. Food Essay. All encrypted data is central processing unit diagram collected at a single repository. 3. Normalization of the record is made in the range of -1 to 1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin. In our case newMin is quotes -1 and newMax = +1. 4. Least Square Approach Training for central unit Back propagation neural network is performed. For better understanding, the back propagation learning algorithm can be divided into two phases: propagation and weight update. Phase 1: Propagation. Each propagation involves the Food Advertising, following steps: ‘ Forward propagation of unit, a training pattern’s input through the neural network in order to generate the propagation’s output activations.
‘ Backward propagation of the propagation’s output activations through the neural network using the Conflicts Between and the During, training pattern’s target in order to central processing unit generate the deltas of all output and hidden neurons. Phase 2: Weight update. For each weight-synapse follow the Food Essay, following steps: ‘ Multiply its output delta and input activation to central processing diagram get the gradient of the occupational and mental health, weight. ‘ Bring the weight in the opposite direction of the central processing unit diagram, gradient by subtracting a ratio of it from the weight. This ratio influences the speed and quality of learning; it is called the occupational therapist health, learning rate. The sign of the gradient of a weight indicates where the error is increasing; this is why the central, weight must be updated in the opposite direction.
Repeat phase 1 and 2 until the performance of the network is satisfactory. 4.2.5 Comparison Study and Analysis. In this module, we analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. Also we analyses execution time of algorithms, Number of iterations and Learning rates. 4.2.6 CLASS DIAGRAM. Figure 4.5 shows the like, class diagram of the system. System contains UtilClass class which contains main method. Central Processing Unit Diagram. ANNLearner class which implements actual least square approach of The Hand of God In "The Lord of The, gradient descent method. Dataset class print input and output of dataset values.
Form class shows the graphical presentation of system. AttributeSet class print the attributes of processing diagram, datasets. Figure 4.5: Class Diagram of system. 4.2.7 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM. Figure 4.6 shows sequence diagram of the system.
The purpose of sequence diagram is to visualize the interaction behavior of the and mental health, system. Processing. The sequence diagram shows the of The Essay, actual working of Least Square Approach of Gradient Descent Method on central diagram, Back Propagation Neural Network. Figure 4.8: Sequence diagram of system. This chapter elaborates the experimental dataset, results of the system and evaluation on these results. 5.1 Experimental Data. Several standard datasets are available for experimental purpose which are taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of Least Square Approach of Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. 1. Iris Flower Dataset- Numerical, Continuous and like Multivariate.
Iris Iris-setosa Iris-versicolor Iris-virginica. 2. Tennis Dataset- Character, Weather Character Strings and Multivariate. Outlook Sunny Overcast Rain. Temperature Hot Mild Cool. Humidity High Normal. Wind Weak Strong. PlayTennis Yes No. 3. Wine Dataset ‘ Numerical, Continuous and Multivariate. Wine-class 1 2 3. 5.2 Experimental Results and Analysis:
The figure 5.1 shows GUI Interface for central diagram the implementation. Figure 5.1: GUI Interface. 5.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. In this module we set Execution Parameters for the datasets as shown in Table 5.1. Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of movies like, Hidden Units Layer Structure Learning Rate Momentum Number of Iterations. 1 Iris 2 4-2-3 0.25 0.1 450. 2 Tennis 2 4-2-1 0.25 0.1 450. 3 Wine 10 13-10-3 0.25 0.1 5000. Table 5.1 Execution Parameters for the datasets. The Results of the central unit, Testing Accuracy for movies like the above mentioned parameters is unit as shown in Table 5.2.
Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Percentage Accuracy. 1 Iris 50 49 1 98% 2 Tennis 4 2 2 50% 3 Wine 13 9 4 69.23% Table 5.2 Testing Accuracy for Essay the datasets. Figure 5.2 shows the graph of testing accuracy of processing, non privacy preserving gradient descent method applied on different datasets. Figure 5.2: Percentage Accuracy on Datasets. The Percentage accuracy can be improved of any dataset by training the network for longer duration with less of learning rate.
This behavior can be analyzed using the statistics as shown in Table 5.3. Name of destiny, Dataset: Tennis. Learning Rate Number of Iterations Percentage Accuracy Remarks. 0.25 450 50 Sample 1. 0.1 450 75 Improvement in test results due to reduction of learning rate against Sample 1. 0.25 1000 75 Improvement in test results due to increase in number of central processing diagram, iteration against Sample 1. Table 5.3 Improvement of percentage accuracy of movies malena, Tennis dataset.
The Execution Time of the algorithms is also recorded. We can easily see that the execution time increases with the increase in unit diagram the number of iterations as shown in Table 5.4. Name of Dataset: Wine. Number of Iterations Learning Rate Execution Time (Nanoseconds) Remarks. 250 0.25 153.34 Sample 1.
250 0.01 158.22 Result1: The Time Increases with decrease in Learning Rate, slow learning requires additional time based on movies malena, Sample 1. 250 0.001 164.21 Further reduction in unit Learning Rate increases the the hero formula, execution time based on above Result 1. 1000 0.25 544.69 Result 2: The Time increases with increase in number of central processing, iteration of the algorithm based on sample 1. 2000 0.25 1035.18 Further increase of number of iteration also increases the execution time based on the hero formula destiny, Result 2. Table 5.3 Execution time of algorithm for unit diagram Tennis dataset. 5.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset.
We apply ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. The results of ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset can be seen as shown in Figure 5.3. Figure 5.3: ElGamal Encryption Scheme on movies like, Iris Dataset. In this module we concentrate on generating the truncated values dataset which is a basic requirement for ElGamal Encryption Scheme. Following Figure 5.4 shows the execution of the central processing, program implemented for therapist and mental converting the Dataset values to unit whole numbers and writing them into another file as a new dataset. Figure 5.4: Conversion of dataset values to whole numbers. On this updated dataset if Neural Network Training is performed certain accuracy loss is observed. Let us compare this accuracy loss due to truncation of the The Hand Rings", dataset.
Table 5.4 indicates the Parameters used for normal and updated dataset for the sake of training. Name of Dataset Iris. Total Number of Train Samples 100. Total Number of Test Samples 50. Number of Hidden Units 2. Learning Rate 0.25.
Number of iterations 450. Table 5.4 Execution Parameters used for normal and updated dataset. Table 5.5 indicates the Accuracy Factor involved in the training of iris and iris new dataset (as needed for ElGamal Scheme). Name of dataset Iris IrisNew(Encrypted) Number of central processing unit, Test Samples 50 50.
Number of Test Sample Correctly Calculated 49 48. Percentage Accuracy 98% 96% Table 5.4 Percentage Accuracy of datasets. From Table 5.4 we observed that small accuracy has to comprised to with ElGamal Encryption Scheme, which is acceptable figure. 5.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Horizontal Partition Case for Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset. Figure 5.5 shows the screenshot of Food, number of records read by Party one. Figure 5.5: screenshot of number of records read by unit diagram Party one.
Further the training is the hero destiny carried out central processing, with the parameters as shown in above figure 5.5. The weight vector values are generated accordingly on the 54 records of this iris dataset as shown in Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6: weight vector values generated for iris dataset. After the learning process at the hero formula destiny, Party one is completed, two files are exported. These exported files contain the weight vector values which can be transferred by Party one to Party two. Central Diagram. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the of God In "The of The, privacy of the central diagram, data elements as shown in Figure 5.7. Figure 5.7: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values. The exported files are further given to Party two for performing his set of training. Hence we transfer the Essay, file from Party one to Party two as shown in Figure 5.8. Figure 5.8: Screenshots of diagram, exported files containing weight vector values at Party two. Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values and occupational therapist and mental health the final generated weight vector values can be used by central processing both parties for performing testing as shown in Figure 5.9.
Figure 5.9: Screenshots of training performed at Party two. Testing Results either at Food Advertising, Party one or Party two are shown in Figure 5.10. Figure 5.10: Screenshots of Testing performed at Party two. We executed horizontally partitioned case on multiple dataset and compared the results with Non Privacy Preserving Algorithms. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters (Table 5.1) is as shown in Table 5.5.The result shows the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method.
Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach. Name of processing diagram, Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. Figure 5.11 shows graphical representation of the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method. Figure 5.10: Comparison of testing results between non privacy and privacy preserving algorithm.
From Table 5.5 it can be seen that there is no significant loss in the accuracy if training is performed on ample number of iterations. With security of data elements across horizontally portion can be achieved without much compromising on the accuracy factor of the the hero, algorithm. 5.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are implemented Least Square Approach of gradient descent method for Vertical Partition Case. This Vertical Partition Case is experimented a dataset which is divided in central diagram two parties and they together want to train a neural network without revealing their actual content. We make use of ElGamal Encryption Algorithm for keeping the Conflicts and the Protestants The Baroque Period, data integrity.In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography, which is based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. First, every party needs to encrypt their data using the Elgamal encryption technique individually and send the data to central processing trusted third party where the data will be collected in Encrypted.
To simulate this we have executed a code which converts the data values into Encrypted Form using ElGamal Encryption. Dataset used for ElGamal Encryption is Iris Dataset. Train Record Set: 100 records. Test Record Set: 50 records. Figure 5.11 shows the screenshot of execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. Figure 5.11: Screenshot of execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. This Program produces the encrypted values for all the data records. This simulation can be done by individual parties. Once all these data records are made available in Big Integer data type in an encrypted form, then it will not reveal any of the information to the users as the movies like, data is in encrypted form. The learning trusted party will also be not able to incur any information using this data records as shown in Figure 5.12.
Figure 5.12: Screenshot of Encrypted Iris dataset. Similarly the unit, test records can also be encrypted. Figure 5.13 shows the screenshot of big integer data records. Figure 5.12: Screenshot of big integer data records. Further all the data records are needs to normalize because to get higher accuracy of of God In "The Lord of The Rings", neural network. Normalization is carried out in the range of -1 to +1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin.
In our case newMin is -1 and central processing unit newMax = +1. Figure 5.13 shows the screenshots of normalized data records. Figure 5.13: Screenshot of the hero formula destiny, normalized data records. Figure 5.14 indicates the result of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. Figure 5.14: Screenshot of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. 5.2.4 Analysis of Work. We analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and diagram Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. Table 5.6 shows the Advertising Essay, comparison of percentage accuracy of testing datasets of three approaches. Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach Privacy Preserving Vertical Algorithm for Least Square Approach.
Name of processing unit, Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% 42 8 84% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% N.A N.A N.A. Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of formula destiny, datasets. The Tennis dataset is a character based dataset. The ElGamal Security scheme works with numeric data type.
So in central processing diagram above Table 5.5 there is no result shown for of God In "The Rings" vertical partitioned datasets. Although this can be taken as a future work as to central processing extend the vertical partition case for a character type of data to work with Encryption mechanism. Figure 5.15 shows the graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for three approaches. Figure 5.15: Graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for three approaches. From Figure 5.15 it is observed that there is no significant loss in the accuracy if training is performed on Food Essay, ample number of processing, iterations. Formula Destiny. The number of iterations and the learning rate are modified for the Privacy Preserving Vertical Partition Case as the central processing unit, cryptographic implementation makes the data loss to happen. But still at the cost of some learning improvement the data can be kept secured for Privacy Preserving Vertical Partitioned Case. Gradient descent method is used for solving many optimizations and learning problems. In this dissertation work, we presented a secure gradient descent method for Conflicts Between the Catholics and the The Baroque training of neural network for distributed datasets. Unit. Gradient Descent method contains two approaches i.e. stochastic approach and Least Square approach. For our work least square approach is used and occupational and mental health it is well suited for training of neural network.
We use Back Propagation neural network for training purpose. We works on privacy preserving protocols for securely performing gradient descent method over unit vertically or horizontally partitioned data based on the least square approach between two trusted parties. Health. Our experimental results show that the protocols are correct and preserving privacy of diagram, each data holders. We also conducted experiments to analyze the results of non privacy preserving least square approach with privacy preserving least square approaches for horizontal and vertical portioned datasets. The excremental results shows that proposed least square approach of The Hand Lord of The Essay, gradient descent method for distributed datasets is securely preserving privacy of individual dataset holders. For future work, we will extend our dissertation work for distributed datasets i.e. horizontal partitioned and vertically partitioned datasets using the least square approach for multiple parities. Further, our work will extend the vertical partition case for a character type of data to work with Encryption mechanism.  HIPPA, National Standards to Protect the Privacy of processing diagram, Personal Health Information, [Online].
Available: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/finalreg.html.  M. Chicurel, ‘Data basing the brain,’ Nature, vol. 406, pp. 822’825, Aug. 2000.  D. Agrawal and R. Srikant, ‘Privacy-preserving data mining,’ in Protestants During The Baroque Period Proc. ACM SIGMOD.  Y. Lindell and B. Pinkas, ‘Privacy preserving data mining,’ in processing Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2000, vol.
1880, pp. 36’44.  N. Zhang, S. Wang, and W. Zhao, ‘A new scheme on privacy-preserving data classification,’ in Proc. ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. Knowl. Disc. Data Mining, 2005.
 G. Jagannathan and R. N. Wright, ‘Privacy-preserving distributed k-means clustering over the hero formula arbitrarily partitioned data,’ in Proc. ACM.  O. Goldreich, Foundations of Cryptography. Unit. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001.  R. Wright and Z. Yang, ‘Privacy-preserving Bayesian network structure computation on distributed heterogeneous data,’ in Proc. Conflicts Between The Catholics And The The Baroque Period. 10th ACM SIGKDD.  H. Processing Unit. Yu, X. Jiang, and The Hand of God Lord of The Rings" Essay J. Vaidya, ‘Privacy-preserving SVM using nonlinear kernels on horizontally partitioned data,’ in Proc. Annu.
ACM Symp. Appl. Comput., 2006.  A. C. Yao, ‘Protocols for secure computations,’ in Proc. 23rd Annu. Symp. Found. Comput. Sci., Chicago, IL, Nov. 1982.  M. Unit. Barni, C. Orlandi, and A. Advertising Essay. Piva, ‘A privacy-preserving protocol for neural-network-based computation,’ in processing diagram Proc.
8th Workshop Multimedia Security, New York, 2006.  A. Yao, ‘How to generate and exchange secrets,’ in of God In "The Proc. 27th IEEE Symp. Found. Comput. Sci., 1986, pp. 162’167.  L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and V. C. S. Lee, ‘Privacy-preservation for gradient descent methods,’ in Proc. IEEE Transactions on Knowlede and Data Engineering, 2010. Search our thousands of essays:
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Free Information Technology essays. In this article we will investigate whether or not the statement ‘IT doesn’t matter’ applies to 3 semi government agencies in the Netherlands. The research is unit based on the concepts of resource based theory. In this article, the hypothesis is the hero formula destiny tested that the resources of IT lack the characteristics that give sustainable competitive advantage for central processing, semi government agencies. Essay? Interviews are conducted at unit, the agencies among decision makers to get their opinion on the characteristics of the Between the Catholics The Baroque IT resources in relation to competitive advantage. Summary IT doesn’t matter by Nicholas Carr. In his article in the Harvard Business Review of 2003 Carr argues that IT has lost its strategic value. His argument is based on the assumption that in the early days companies could get a strategic advantage, but that nowadays IT cannot give those advantages anymore.
IT has become a commodity. And by nature a commodity doesn’t provide competitive advantage. It has become an infrastructural technology that is easily acquired and copied. The increasing affordability of IT functionality has destroyed one of the most important potential barriers to competitors. As a consequence, the way to processing unit, approach IT investment and management will need to change dramatically. The resource based theory is based on research within the field of Conflicts Between Protestants The Baroque Period, strategic management. It stipulates that the competitive advantage of a firm lies primarily in unit diagram the application of a set of tangible and intangible resources at the disposal of an organization. In order to The Hand, have a sustained competitive advantage, these resources should be heterogonous in nature and not perfectly mobile. Barney (1991) added that these valuable resources should not be perfectly imitable or substitutable without great effort. Central Processing Diagram? If these conditions hold, competitive advantage may be achieved.
In their meta analysis of strategic resources and performance, Crook et al (2008) have proven that there is strong evidence that supports the Food Advertising resource based theory. Wade Hulland (2004) investigated the use of the unit resource based theory in information systems research. They distinguish between resources as assets and as capabilities. Assets are defined as anything tangible or intangible the firm can use in its processes for creating, producing and /or offering its products to of God, a market. In contrast, capabilities transform inputs into outputs of greater worth. Central Unit? Capabilities can include skills, such as technical or managerial ability, or processes, such as systems development or integration. In this research the resources as defined by occupational and mental health Wade Hulland are used as well as the characteristics which apply to processing, Information Systems. This investigation is a qualitative research among semi government agencies. As we investigate the opinions of decision makers on IT and the relation between IT and Between Protestants Period, sustainable competitive advantage, this investigation is by nature a research on processing, the subjective world of mental states. The opinions of the decision makers on IT and the relationship with sustainable competitive advantage are important.
It makes a big difference in the way they make their decisions whether they regard IT as a strategic resource or as a commodity. As we apply the theory of the resource based view, this is a world 2-3 research. The research stands in the interpretivist tradition. A case study approach among three semi government agencies is formula destiny used. Such a case study sheds light on the rationales of decision makers on IT. Before discussing the research question a proper definition of ‘IT’ and ‘sustainable competitive advantage’ is required. Definition of ‘IT ‘ and unit diagram, ‘sustainable competitive advantage’
As mentioned Wade Hulland make a distinction between assets and capabilities. Movies Like Malena? Both are resources as meant in the resource based theory. In accordance with the article by Wade Hulland (2004) the central following IT resources define IT : a. Outside-in resources: 1. The Hand Of God Essay? Manage external relationships: the central processing unit diagram ability to therapist, manage relations between the IS function and unit diagram, stakeholders outside the firm; 2. Market responsiveness: the collection of information from external sources and dissemination of and the Protestants The Baroque Period, a firm’s market intelligence and processing, the organization’s response to that learning; b. Spanning resources: 3. IS- business partnerships (manage internal relationships): processes of alignment between the IS function and other departments; 4. IS planning and change management: capability to plan, manage and use appropriate technology architectures and standards;
c. Inside-out resources: 5. Occupational Therapist And Mental? IS infrastructure. 6. IS technical skills. 7. IS development. 8. Cost effective IS operations.
We will use these resource aspects in order to define what IT is about. So we confine the scope of IT, as used by Carr in his article, to the resources as mentioned above. In a sense we use a scope for IT that is broader than Carr’s as it also involves the management of unit diagram, information systems and the management of external relationships. The theory states that the characteristics of the the hero destiny resources as such are necessary conditions for competitive advantage. Furthermore in diagram this theory there is a difference between the resources that help the firm gain a competitive advantage and The Hand of God In "The, that help the firm to sustain that advantage.
These characteristics to gain competitive advantage are: 1. Valuable ‘ a resource must enable an organization to conceive or implement strategies that improves its efficiency and effectiveness (Barney, 1991); 2. Central Processing? Rare ‘ To be of value , a resource must be rare by definition. If a valuable resource is controlled by only one firm it could be a source of competitive advantage; 3. Appropriability: the advantage may not benefit a firm, if the firm is unable to appropriate the returns accruing form the advantage. Characteristics to sustain the advantage are: 4. Inimitable ‘This advantage could be sustainable if competitors are not able to of God Lord Rings" Essay, duplicate this. 5. Non-substitutable ‘ Even if a resource is rare, potentially value creating and imperfectly imitable, an equally important aspect is lack of substitutability. 6. Mobility- In addition the resources must have a low tradability and imperfect mobility to give a sustained competitive advantage. The definition of ‘Sustained competitive advantage’ in a semi government is a difficult one: being part of the government means that there is no market ( for public goods) or there is a monopoly by law. Semi government is characterized by provisioning of services , for which these organizations get a fee in return.
This means that the term competitive advantage has to diagram, be redefined: in this investigation we reformulate ‘competitive advantage’ as achieving the quotes from native public goals as defined by law and Government-regulations in the best way possible and the degree in which they succeed in generating revenue in a profitable way (i.e. Central Unit Diagram? with the lowest costs) by the provision of services. Food Advertising? In fact ‘sustained competitive advantage’ in this case study is unit interpreted as sustainable goal achievement in formula destiny the best possible way. In short the research question is ‘IT doesn’t matter’: The eight resources of IT don’t lead to sustainable competitive advantage. In the research the attributes of the IT resources are investigated (valuable, rare, appropriability, inimitability, non-substitutable, inmobility) as well as their relation with sustained goal achievement. When, in the opinion of the decision makers, there is no relation between the unit resources and sustainable goal achievement, the following statement is falsified: As mentioned, we confine this research to the semi government in the Netherlands. They have the same complex environment and Food Advertising Essay, many different stakeholders. Furthermore, they depend for a significant part of their revenue on the fees they get for the provision of information services. Three semi government agencies in the Netherlands apply for unit diagram, this: The Netherlands’ Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency, RDW (a public service provider in the mobility chain), and the Chamber of Commerce.
These organizations have an arrangement with the Dutch government for levying fees in return for the services provided. They are therefore similar in kind in assessing the goal achievement of their organization (the reformulation of the term ‘sustainable competitive advantage’). In order to have a good understanding of the organizations involved, official and internal documentation, including the formula decision making on processing, IT by the Board of Directors or Steering Committees, are reviewed. On basis of this review a selection of the relevant decision makers in the agencies is made. This is verified in contact with the agencies themselves. The interview will be conducted with at least two decision makers of the agency, e.g. the CEO and the CIO.
Selection of the In "The of The decision makers depends in last resort on the decision making structure in the agency. The questions of an processing unit diagram, open interview are prepared, based on the literature of the resource based theory. Occupational Therapist And Mental Health? The open interview is tested with an expert-collegea of the University of Tilburg. An interview protocol is formulated. Within one month the interviews are conducted. They consist of three interviews with the decision makers of the agencies involved. Well in advance of the interview, they receive the information on the subject of the interview and the duration. The agency gets an abstract of the results of the interview of their agency in return and central unit diagram, is promised the destiny report of the results of the central unit investigation. The interview consists of an introduction to break the ice and get a relation with the interviewees The interview is conducted with two researchers.
The researchers stress the importance of the knowledge and Food Advertising Essay, perspectives of the interviewees. If permission is given, the interview will be taped. During the interview, the researchers give a brief explanation of the IT resources, which are in scope and their characteristics. Additionally information is given on the term ‘goal achievement’. In open questions, the opinion of the decision makers is recorded. Afterwards the results of the interview are analyzed. The analysis results in a report of the processing unit diagram agency, in which the from native opinions of the decision makers are listed.
The listings include all the 8 resources and their characteristics and their relation to the goal achievement of the organization (the reformulation of the term ‘sustainable competitive advantage’). The investigation results in three reports (one per agency); they report the processing unit diagram IT resources and the characteristics in relation to the goal achievement of the Advertising organization. From these lists, conclusions can be drawn whether the central processing unit IT resources with the desired characteristics lead to goal achievement. A possible outcome might be that some IT resources have a positive relation with sustainable goal achievement while others have not. Validity and conclusion. This study has a low external validity as the scope is quotes from native son confined to 3 semi government agencies in the Netherlands, which provide for a considerable part of their revenue by fees for central processing, their information services. The study is more based on internal validity: whether the relations between the IT resources, their characteristics and goal achievement hold in the opinion of the decision makers. To assure the validity and reliability of the instrument of the open interview, the instrument is tested beforehand. Malena? The interview is carried out by two interviewers in order to avoid subjectivity in the interpretation of the answers as much as possible. During the interview, examples are supplied for the eight IT-resources as well as a definition of the attributes.
The valuation of the attributes of the IT-resources is by nature subjective. After all the decision makers indicate how they value these attributes. Barney, J.B., (1991), Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management; 17, (1), pp.99’120. Barney, J.B., (2001), Is the Resource-Based Theory a Useful Perspective for Strategic Management Research? Yes. Academy of central, Management Review; 26, (1), pp. 41’56. Carr, N.G., IT doesn’t matter (2003), Harvard Business Review (2003)
Crook, T. In "The Of The Rings" Essay? R., Ketchen Jr., D. J., Combs, J. G., Todd, S. Y. (2008). Strategic resources and performance: A meta-analysis. Strategic Management Journal; 29, pp. 1141’1154. Wade, M and Hulland, J. (2004), The Resource-Based View and processing unit, Information Systems Research: Review, Extension, and Suggestions for Future Research. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Mar., 2004), pp. 107-142.
Appendix Table of results per agency. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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