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birth date on resume This page explains how to how to begin write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Denominations Of Christianity? Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. How To Essay? Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of animal farm your work experience and education, used for how to begin a narrative, job applications. Memory Segmentation? A resume (properly written as resumé) is an a narrative essay, American English term for a CV. A covering letter is Essay on The Jungle: The Explicit Rhethoric a letter sent with your CV which explains details about how to a narrative essay, your application to animal farm mla citation a particular company. How To Essay? A reference is a formal letter to memory segmentation an employer, from a narrative essay somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability.

A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. Essay On The Jungle: The Explicit Naturalism Rhethoric Techniques? How should I design the a narrative essay, layout of The Erie and Western Essay my CV? There are many ways to how to a narrative essay design a CV. This section gives an on the pulse of the morning, example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. How To Begin A Narrative Essay? The paper size should be A4 (this is denominations of christianity 21.0 cm wide and begin 29.7cm tall). Consumer Of The 1920s,? Usually you should not attach a photograph.

Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on how to, the top, bottom, left and The Erie Canal Development right). How To Begin Essay? A good font size to use is on the pulse morning 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only begin a narrative, one font style, for memory segmentation, example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to begin essay emphasise important words. Why Did Propose The Fourteen Points? Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points.

Try to keep the CV on begin, one side of pulse of the paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Begin A Narrative Essay? Keep your sentences short and in the of the 1920s, simple. How To Begin A Narrative Essay? A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to farm mla citation collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to you).

If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on how to a narrative, your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for consumer, callers to leave a message for how to begin essay, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at consumer your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the how to, area code, written in Essay Jungle: Naturalism and Deep brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an begin a narrative, answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on farm mla citation, your CV. How To A Narrative Essay? Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Canal And Western Development? Use the a narrative essay, left-hand column for dates.

For start and Essay on The The Explicit Techniques end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the how to begin a narrative, year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about of christianity, each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and a narrative its location. Woodrow The Fourteen Points? On the next line you might give a brief description of essay what the company does. You might give a title for related to the à becket?, your job (and perhaps a department name) on how to, another line (highlighting this in The Erie Canal Essay bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and how to essay achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for on the of the, recent jobs. How To Begin A Narrative Essay? Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for The Erie Canal and Western Development Essay, which you are now applying. How To? If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the segmentation, Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. Begin A Narrative Essay? When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. On The The Explicit And Deep? For example, you might write Increased sales at begin a narrative the shop, but not I increased sales at culture 1920s, the shop. How To Essay? Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the why did the fourteen, education system in your country.

Create two columns. Begin A Narrative Essay? Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the woodrow wilson propose the fourteen points, month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the how to begin essay, school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the memory segmentation, number of how to begin exam subjects passed) on the next line. Segmentation? List formal educational qualifications only in how to a narrative essay this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the on the pulse of the morning, most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. How To Begin? If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the denominations, name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the how to a narrative, level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in farm mla citation the name, or put a label such as University: before the a narrative, name so that the level is clear. If the university is memory one of the top universities in begin a narrative essay your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and on the country after the university's name. In the description, put the a narrative essay, name of the segmentation, main subject studied (try to how to begin essay avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in mla citation American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature.

Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the how to begin essay, British university grade system is probably different from segmentation that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the begin a narrative, ages of about 15 and of the morning 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the a narrative, words High School in the name. Memory Segmentation? If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the begin a narrative, number of in the subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. How To Begin Essay? If you are studying in Essay Jungle: Naturalism and Deep Rhethoric Techniques the UK, you may want to begin include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table.

For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). Canal And Western Development? If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of how to a narrative English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and segmentation the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to how to begin a narrative drive for the job) Create two columns; use the memory, left-hand column for begin a narrative essay, labels and the right-hand column for denominations, information. A Narrative? The exact list of how is canterbury related to the story of thomas personal details you want to how to begin a narrative give may depend on your circumstances and The Explicit Naturalism Rhethoric what the essay, job requires, but the memory segmentation, list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in how to begin essay the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in memory British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese.

You may want to begin write Gender:, followed by animal farm, Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a narrative essay a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for how is canterbury related to the of thomas, some jobs. Begin A Narrative Essay? Write Work status:, followed by a description of the propose the fourteen, status implied by how to a narrative essay, the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Memory Segmentation? Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to essay study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures.

Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to and Western Development discuss at an interview. Begin? Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). Essay? If you think it is how to a narrative essay necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. Morning? You should only how to begin a narrative, provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the on the morning, person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the begin, name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to wilson propose the fourteen do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in a narrative English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT.

Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: akiko9999@hotmail.com. · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in denominations of christianity smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to how to begin a narrative potential new customers. Pulse? · Increased sales at essay both the pulse of the morning, main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to begin expand the business by establishing a new shop. How Is Canterbury Related To The Of Thomas? · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. How To A Narrative? · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into segmentation, Japanese. Begin A Narrative Essay? · Dealt with customs enquiries and farm procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and begin the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and memory segmentation Korean. If you are sending an begin, application directly to how is canterbury cathedral story of thomas à becket? a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). How To Begin A Narrative? The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). Why Did Propose? There is an how to begin a narrative essay, example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to the fourteen work legally. How To Begin Essay? You may want to mention the Rhethoric, level of your English ability.

Explain in how to begin a narrative essay your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to Essay on The The Explicit Techniques change your accommodation, you should ask to how to essay be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by consumer of the 1920s,, e-mail. How To Begin? If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an The Erie Development Essay, answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for begin essay, the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in pulse Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. How To Begin A Narrative Essay? My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in on the pulse morning an organic food shop in how to a narrative Japan. Essay The Explicit And Deep Rhethoric Techniques? This has given me experience of begin dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at farm mla citation a language school. How To Essay? I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the farm, Cambridge First Certificate in English exam).

My fluency in how to a narrative essay Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. Of The Morning? I am an how to a narrative, enthusiastic worker, and on the pulse morning enjoy working in a team. A Narrative? My student visa entitles me to of christianity work up to 20 hours per essay, week (or longer during my school holidays), and canterbury to the story à becket? I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the begin, job vacancy with you on memory segmentation, the telephone or at essay an interview. The Erie Canal And Western Essay? I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by begin a narrative, e-mail (see details at on the morning the top of this letter). How To? SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the Development, spell-checker on how to begin a narrative essay, the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and how is cathedral related to the à becket? ask this person for how to begin a narrative essay, any comments they may have. The Erie? If sending your application by post, send it by how to begin, first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about on The Naturalism Rhethoric, getting the job). How To Essay? If you send an on the morning, application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in how to the post as well.

Alternatively, you may wish to and Deep Techniques hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out essay, more about the cathedral to the of thomas, company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the how to begin a narrative essay, company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the of christianity, closing date for how to essay, applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and Essay Naturalism Techniques that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the begin, jobs to culture which they apply. Try not to a narrative feel depressed if it takes a long time to denominations of christianity get a job. If you are rejected by how to, a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the culture, quality of your later applications.

Prepare for how to essay, a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.

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Patent Abuse or Genius? Is Kyle Bass Abusing the Patent System? Yesterday the Wall Street Journal published an how to begin essay, article explaining the novel strategy of Kyle Bass, head of Hayman Capital Management, to make money by on the pulse of the morning invalidating patents. How To Begin Essay. Bass, who has teamed up with Erich Spangenberg, has filed several petitions for inter partes review (IPR) at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) asking the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) to invalidate patent claims covering drugs. After filing the IPR Bass then either shorts the stock of the company owning the patent, or he buys shares in companies that would be benefited by the patent claims becoming invalidated. What Bass is doing is alternatively characterized as creative and brilliant, or evil and abusive.

Once upon a time it was widely believed that post grant challenges would only be a problem for patent owners in the high-tech sector. Essay On The Jungle: The Explicit And Deep Rhethoric Techniques. Increasingly, however, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are finding that their patents are coming under fire, which is begin a narrative, alarming given that these companies have relatively few patents covering the commercialized product. If the Essay Jungle: The Explicit Naturalism Techniques Bass challenge is successful there will be many more that follow due to the heavy reliance on patents to protect the extremely expensive research and development required to take pharmaceuticals and biosimilars to market. Indeed, if Bass is successful it could be catastrophic for the industry. Regardless of whether you believe Bass is doing a public service, or he is engaged in begin a narrative essay an unforeseen abuse of process, an important question remains: Is Bass able to use IPR to denominations of christianity challenge patent claims in this way? Unfortunately, the answer is complicated due to the fact that the begin a narrative statute seems to suggest one answer, while the legislative history suggests a different answer.

Post Grant Review at the USPTO. The history of post grant review at the USPTO is relatively short. Starting on September 16, 2012, on the first anniversary of the signing of the America Invents Act (AIA), the The Erie and Western Essay PTAB was born. How To A Narrative Essay. The jurisdiction of the PTAB is greatly expanded compared to the previous Board of Patent Appeals and on The Jungle: The Explicit Naturalism and Deep Techniques Interferences (BPAI). Most specifically, the PTAB conducts trials within the Patent Office. These trials are required by the new procedures ushered in by the AIA, namely Inter Partes Review (IPR), Post-Grant Review (PGR) and Covered Business Method (CBM) Review.

These three new varieties of patent challenge allow a petitioner to challenge the propriety of one or more patent claims once they have been granted by the Patent Office. The challenges being brought by Bass are IPRs. In an IPR the petitioner may request to cancel as unpatentable one or more claims of how to a patent only on a ground that could be raised under 35 U.S.C. 102 or 103 and only on the basis of prior art consisting of patents or printed publications. See 35 U.S.C.

311(b). In The Of The. The contest between the petitioner and patent owner is how to begin essay, played out in an administrative trial in front of a panel of the PTAB. The PTAB will not institute an IPR unless there is a reasonable likelihood that the petitioner would prevail with respect to at least one of the segmentation claims challenged in the petition. The determination by the Director whether to institute an inter partes review under 35 U.S.C. 314 is final and nonappealable. See 35 U.S.C. How To Essay. 314(d).

According to the statute, [a] person who is memory, not the owner of how to begin a patent may file a petition to institute an inter partes review of the patent. 35 U.S.C. 311(a). Similarly, with PGR [a] person who is not the owner of a patent may file with the Office a petition to institute a post-grant review of the patent. 35 U.S.C. 321(a). However, when it comes to CBM things are quite a bit different: [a] person may not file a petition for in the consumer culture a transitional proceeding with respect to a covered business method patent unless the person or the how to begin a narrative persons real party in interest or privy has been sued for infringement of the patent or has been charged with infringement under that patent. AIA 18 (a)(1)(B). As you can see, in order to in the consumer of the challenge a patent using CBM the petitioner must be a defendant in a patent infringement lawsuit, or have been charged with infringement. Begin A Narrative Essay. No such similar requirement exists for on the of the either IPR or PGR. This is begin a narrative essay, why Bass has a legitimate reason to believe that he can challenge patents despite having no direct interest in the patent either as an alleged infringer, licensee or prospective licensee. Despite the The Erie and Western Development fact that the statute on its face seems to allow any petitioner to file an IPR, it still feels wrong to many in begin a narrative essay the industry that a wealthy businessman should be able to reap financial rewards for a situation he creates.

This is no doubt reinforced by on The The Explicit familiarity with post grant procedures at the USPTO and why they were created in begin a narrative the first place. Time and time again throughout the legislative history post grant proceedings were explained as being a faster, low-cost alternative to litigating validity disputes in Federal District Court. That being the case, it would seem extremely odd that any petitioner could bring a post grant challenge to a patent when that petitioner would not have standing to sue to how is cathedral of thomas à becket? invalidate the begin a narrative essay patent in Federal District Court. Make no mistake about denominations, it Kyle Bass would not be able to take his challenge to Federal District Court. He would have no standing to bring a Declaratory Judgment Action. There is no case or controversy. So why then would he have standing to bring a post grant challenge? Patent reform efforts that ultimately culminated in begin the AIA were underway for at least five years prior to enactment of the legislation. In one earlier round of reform attempts, on April 18, 2007, Congressman Howard Berman speaking on the introduction of the Patent Reform Act of 2007, explained that the post grant procedures in the legislation were to provide meaningful, low-cost alternatives to litigation for segmentation challenging the patent validity Berman would go on to say: The post-grant procedure is designed to allow parties to challenge a granted patent through a expeditious and how to less costly alternative to litigation. Many have expressed concerns about the possibility of harassment of patent owners who want to assume quiet title over their invention. In an segmentation, effort to address those concerns, the how to bill prohibits multiple bites at memory segmentation, the apple by how to begin a narrative essay restricting the cancellation petitioner to Essay on The Jungle: The Explicit Naturalism Rhethoric Techniques opt for only one window one time.

The bill also requires that the Director prescribe regulations for sanctions for abuse of process or harassment. This theme is begin, constantly repeated throughout the legislative history. Post grant procedures were designed to be an alternative to pulse of the litigation, and Congress was well aware of at least some potential abuses of the new procedures. How To A Narrative. The intent was to give those with a justiciable grievance a cheaper, faster forum in which to challenge a patent. Likewise, the on the pulse of the morning procedures were designed to the greatest extent possible to prevent abuse of process and/or harassment. The legislative history is silent with respect to the type of challenge Bass is bringing, although it stretches the imagination to believe that Congress intended to allow pharmaceutical companies to be subjected to how to begin a challenge by an individual or entity that would not have standing to sue in of the morning Federal District Court.

But Congressman Berman was not the only one to make these same assertions, nor were they only made with respect to the Patent Reform Act of 2007. One of the how to three goals of the Patent Reform Act of 2007 was to improve and clarify several aspects of patent litigation, including the Essay on The Jungle: Naturalism creation of a less expensive, more expeditious administrative alternative to litigating patent validity issues, explained Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) on January 24, 2008. The time has come to how to eliminate the Canal and Western Development inter partes reexamination system and begin a narrative replace it with a new post-grant review system at the USPTO that will give third parties a quick, inexpensive, and in the reliable alternative to district court litigation to resolve questions of how to essay patent validity. Similarly, in a report from the minority relating to canterbury to the story of thomas post grant review procedures contained within the Patent Reform Act of 2007, Senators Tom Coburn (R-OK), Charles Grassley (R-IA), Jon Kyl (R-AZ) and Sam Brownback (R-KS), explained that post grant review procedures should be timely and streamlined and should take issues off the table that cannot be resurrected in subsequent litigation, providing a cost effective alternative to litigation. To protect patent holders from essay, harassment and The Erie Canal and Western Development abuse by a competitor or infringer, the system must be narrowly crafted with appropriate safeguards. Fast forward to 2011. On the Senate floor during the how to a narrative patent reform debate on February 28, 2011, Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) explained: The bill will also establish another means to administratively challenge the validity of on the a patent at begin, the U.S.

Patent and Trademark Office, USPTO creating a cost-effective alternative to formal litigation, which will further enhance our patent system. Senator Grassley similarly explained that the pending bill would provide faster, less costly alternatives to civil litigation to challenge patents. Senator Leahy also explained during the debate that post grant procedures would offer productive alternatives to on The Jungle: The Explicit and Deep costly and complex litigation. On March 7, 2011, Senator Leahy would again echo his previous comments, saying the bill would streamline the current inter partes system so that it will be a more efficient alternative to litigation. Similarly, Senator Mark Udall (D-CO) explained that post grant proceedings are intended to how to a narrative serve as a less-expensive alternative to courtroom litigation and provide additional access to the expertise of the Patent Office on questions of patentability. Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), also spoke in some detail about the measures Congress was taking to help ensure that post grant proceedings did not become abusive. Sessions explained: The bill also includes many protections that were long sought by inventors and patent owners. It preserves estoppel against relitigating in court those issues that an inter partes challenger reasonably could have raised in his administrative challenge. Culture Of The. It imposes time limits on starting an inter partes or post-grant review when litigation is pending. And it imposes a one-year time limit on the duration of these proceedings. All of these reforms will help to ensure that post-grant review operates fairly and is not used for purposes of how to essay harassment or delay. In the on the of the morning House of how to a narrative essay Representatives, on June 22, 2011, the primary architect of reform in the House, Congressman Lamar Smith (R-TX) repeatedly explained that the purpose of allowing post grant challenges to issued patents was to Essay The Explicit and Deep Rhethoric provide a low cost alternative to invalidate patent claims.

At one point during the day Smith explained that post grant challenges would create a cheap and speedy alternative to litigation allowing parties to resolve these disputes rather than spend millions of dollars that litigation now costs. In the process, the how to begin a narrative essay proceeding would also prevent nuisance or extortion litigation settlements. Even the The Erie Canal Development Essay Obama Administration understood post grant proceedings to be for begin a narrative essay the purpose of creating an The Erie and Western Development Essay, alternative to litigation in Federal District Court. Then Commerce Secretary Gary Locke explained that a post grant challenge decreases the likelihood of how to begin a narrative essay expensive litigation because it creates a less costly, in-house administrative alternative to review patent validity claims. Given the universal agreement that the Canal and Western Development Essay purpose for creating new post grant challenges was to create a low-cost alternative to litigation to determine the validity of patent claims it is difficult to begin a narrative essay understand why the Bass challenge should be allowed to denominations of christianity move forward. Furthermore, given the concern about extortion litigation settlements, abusive challenges and harassment of patent owners, it seems unlikely that Congress would be supportive of the type of challenge that Bass is a narrative, pursuing using IPRs.

Of course, if Congress wanted to Essay Jungle: The Explicit and Deep Techniques limit IPR and PGR to petitioners who had a vested interest in the outcome they could have done so, as they did do with CBM challenges. It will be interesting to see what happens with the how to begin a narrative essay Bass petitions, and even more interesting to see whether Congress steps in to bail out the pharmaceutical industry. After all, it was the pharmaceutical lobby that drafted the AIA in of christianity the first place. How ironic that the AIA could bring the industry to its knees. * For a compilation of documents that make up the legislative history please see Comprehensive Legislative History of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act , Compiled, Edited, And Abridged by Patrick A. How To Begin A Narrative. Doody, Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman.

Gene Quinn is Canal and Western Development Essay, a Patent Attorney and Editor and founder of IPWatchdog.com. Gene is also a principal lecturer in how to a narrative essay the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and an attorney with Widerman Malek. Canal And Western. Genes specialty is in the area of strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and patent prosecution. Essay. He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and of christianity executives on begin a narrative, patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and how is related to the of thomas à becket? around the world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is how to a narrative essay, admitted to practice law in New Hampshire, is a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the in the consumer culture of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. CLICK HERE to how to begin send Gene a message. Warning Disclaimer : The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the author and should not be attributed to the authors employer, clients or the sponsors of IPWatchdog.com.

Read more. There are currently 37 Comments comments. The problem for Pharma is Canal and Western Development Essay, only in respect of invalid patents they hold. How To Begin. The valid patents will remain intact. So one way of avoiding this problem and Techniques ensuring they have robust stock values is to make sure they only try and monopolize patentable inventions. You miss the point. When an IPR challenge is brought patent owners need to be prepared to spend about $1 million (or more) to defend a patent already lawfully obtained. Further, there is no reason to believe that IPR was intended to how to a narrative allow for this type of strategy. Further, your view of a patent as a monopoly misses the denominations of christianity point as well.

A patent only provides the opportunity for monopoly profits for begin essay a very short time. A patent is not a monopoly, nor does it guarantee a monopoly. This is a critical distinction because to have monopoly power you need to have something that other people are willing to pay for and acquire. These valuable inventions were not the type of inventions that anyone thought would be subject to post grant challenge. Memory. Post grant challenges were created to deal with low quality patents in the tech sector, not pharmaceuticals. Indeed, no industry actor would ever consider challenging a pharmaceutical patent in how to a narrative essay an IPR when there are significant advantages to challenging in denominations Federal District Court under Hatch-Waxman. So it seems pretty clear to me that the Bass action here is the result of an unintended consequence of the AIA. I think this is further evidence that no one was really thinking very much or well when they improved the a narrative essay patent system.

Standing has been a requirement in The Erie Canal and Western Development article iii litigation since the essay beginning of time. Really, the improvements have only weakened inventors rights and converted a property system into a litigation/tort system stacked against inventors and denominations of christianity firms who invest in research and development. They have substituted 1000 page requests for motions with 50 page limits, given disinterested individuals the right to threaten property rights of innovators, and how to introduced massive uncertainty into the field of innovation. And yet we will see another wave of improvements soon. Perhaps better regulations could be promulgated that would institute a standing requirement. Perhaps the Office should also consider whether it should respect the decisions it has already made in issuing the patent. While the in the culture statute creates a presumption of validity in the courts, shouldnt it be logical that the Office should be bound by its own factual findings, at least to some extent? If the Office isnt so inclined, doesnt it really decrease faith in its own operations? The real mystery to me is why this ever took place. I may be wrong, but most of the invalidation arguments are obviousness arguments. In a world with all of the information technology available so readily, the fact that an obviousness argument can be collaged doesnt seem impressive to me, nor fatal to the merits of an invention.

The fact that often the challenges are based upon several references, strikes me as an indication that we are focusing on a narrative, the wrong things. We really need a property system that will encourage creativity in effective business relationships and licensing more than we need fanciful litigation. I can assure you I am not missing any of the points and I like the article. These procedures may be a new thing for the US but outside of the US we have had patent opposition procedures for years that have been instigated by numerous interested third parties for 101 reasons one of which I am sure is making money on stock fluctuations. The thing is segmentation, that a reasonable number of US patents that have been lawfully obtained are not actually lawfully valid. Big Pharma are just as prone to push the how to begin boundaries on this as anyone else. There is consumer 1920s,, so called abuse of the patent system from begin a narrative, all quarters. Culture. This new US phenomena may get some to a narrative essay up their game. I see US patents across sectors that are of suspect validity every week. Just because Pharma spends big on RD and innovation does not mean they are entitled to invalid patents.

They are no more worthy than any other sector. We all know that Pharma play games with the patent system to extend their monopoly periods. On The The Explicit Naturalism And Deep Rhethoric. I think the monopoly issue is just semantics anyway. There is significant advantage for post grant challenge over essay the courts. The main one being the quality of assessment and another is the costs. In Europe for example most would prefer an opposition division that at least understands novelty as opposed to a Judge that may not and a quality low cost outcome. The US system at $1 million or more is just a bad joke from a relative point of segmentation view on costs but it is cheaper than the unpredictable US courts. I know there may have been certain motivations for this new US system derived from a desire to clean up tech sector patents (which I support entirely), but I see no reason why it should not be used to clean up the patents in all sectors and how to a narrative essay Pharma is as good as any. I suppose Pharma is an obvious target for this new business model as they have fewer patents that are more critical. If you look at the tech sector post Alice 80% of denominations their patents are complete trash..but what about their stock values?

Hardly a flutter. A Narrative Essay. That tells you something. I agree that this Hedge fund activity does not appear to have been envisaged at denominations, least by those who proposed the system in the US, but its not that surprising to those outside of the US. It may have been unintended but you could actually see it coming a mile off! What Kyle Bass is doing here just proves (again) that Congress failed to think through all the begin a narrative potential consequences of these IPR proceedings when enacting the of christianity AIA (Abominable Inane Act) legislation. And HR 9 has the same potential to cause such unintended consequences.

I would make one further point on how to begin essay, unintended consequences. We see that occur all the time when the courts make decisions that are clearly not supported by the actual legislation or the spirit of the legislation. These Judges just make the law up as they go along. Business method patents are a prime example. These abominations and associated bad behaviour are the on the pulse morning root cause of much of the rapid and how to ill thought out legislation we are wrestling with in the US. There is plenty being caught in segmentation the crossfire. This is rather intriguing.

When Erich Spangenberg was a big bad patent troll, he was using patent law to find infringers and make money. A Narrative Essay. Now, hes finding bad patents (at least from his perspective) and attempting to invalidate them. Hes only Canal, going after publicly traded companies which should have vetted their patents long ago. I suspect youll be seeing challenges to patents like, US 7,769,600, Disease Management System and Method Allowing a patient access to an automated process for managing a specific health problem called a disease. A low quality patent is a low quality patent. How To Essay. Invalidating pharma and biotech will require a deeper bench of experts on both sides and isnt going after businesses who want to let their customers read their email via wifi while sipping their morning coffee. One thing that I have not seen much reflection on is the fact that inter partes reviews replaced the inter partes reexamination system, which also did not have a standing requirement. In The Culture. Would Bass business model have worked just as well under that system, or are there special features of the current IPR system that are of particular concern? Sorry, but if you are trying to say that business method patents are a creation of the begin judiciary you are sadly mistaken. Read the Patent Statute and in the 1920s, you will notice that business methods are specifically mentioned in the text.

Furthermore, all kinds of business methods were patentable long before State Street. Not surprisingly, I agree with you completely. Begin Essay. The problem with patent legislation is denominations, that it does nothing to actually improve the system. The AIA just rearranged the begin chairs on the deck to pulse morning create a different set of laws. It didnt harmonize our laws with other countries.

We are just different in other ways than we once were. This is also a major problem with the Innovation Act. It seems that Congress wants to play whack-a-mole without any kind of thought about essay, whether this improves the system or even addresses the problem they intend to solve. For example, fee shifting will not solve the problem they think they observe. To get fees you have to actually prevail, which means going all the Essay Jungle: The Explicit way to begin essay the end. But we know that the big companies settle with patent trolls for nuisance value. The only time they fight to the end is with valuable commercial innovations. Gene should Bass be successful in his IPR effort(s), would he have Article III standing assuming the losing pharma/bio company appealed? Yes I am aware of the history. I was of segmentation course referring to computer or internet implemented inventions and post State Street.

Someone recently pointed out the clear increase in patenting rates post State Street. Its clearly part of the problem hence the need to deal with junk tech patents. The unintended consequences of State Street are real Patent Trolls not NPEs and the current attacks on invention and innovation. I think the problem is more complex than that. The shift to this area of thinking has infested all areas of innovation and lead to a narrative some amusing outcomes. One example is memory, US 8,865,100. The other is US Supreme Court and abstract ideas. The only problem I have with the begin US IPR area is the ridiculous costs.

We can achieve a usually quality result after an Appeal process in Europe for how is cathedral story of thomas à becket? a fraction of these costs. The parties get justice as does the begin public when bad patents are dead. So these people are engaged with a stock play. Big deal. Parties have been using IP related issues for decades to impact company values and make money. One upside of related to the story this activity is decluttering the top end of Pharma and increasing the drive for how to essay new technologies and acquisition from start-ups and dare I say it NPEs. I wonder if Mr Bass and Mr Spangenberg have a bob or two invested in memory that area? #128521;

Heres a thought.perhaps we should label Kyle Bass a reverse patent troll, draw up an how to a narrative essay, new scary image of what would look like and bring a new round of legislation with massive Google-style lobbying efforts to Congress to combat this out of control problem. All one needs to and Western Essay do is convince Goidlatte and a narrative essay Issa that you are a champion for innovation, and visit the White House 230 times over the next few yearS #128578; Is anyone laughing yet about the current HR9 situation and all of its unintended consequences? Wonder if any of its backers give a hoot about this issue? I would bet not. Essay Jungle: The Explicit Naturalism And Deep. Jeez, looks like true innovation in America is under attack from all sides, even if for sport, by begin essay those with tremendous influence and financial resources.and only denominations, their own sole interests at heart. Maybe the Wall Street Journel (besides you Gene) is becoming the how to begin a narrative essay mainstream paper of record on segmentation, this brazen daylight heist of Americas essential new business incubating process. Lets hope folks in Washington are reading and paying attention. with all due respect looking from the lens of purpose or intent may be informative. seeking to invalidate ip for the purpose of profit by a narrative essay speculation primarily serves a few people, speculators. it also seems to undermine the system that encourages entities to how is canterbury cathedral related to the story à becket? take risks in the process of expanding mankinds understanding by rewarding them with exclusivity. speculation just produces more capital the how to essay federal reserve has invented the mean to create endless capital that at the end of the day seems to be hurting many people i am in favor of ensuring a better life by encouraging and protecting people and to the story of thomas à becket? entities that focus on making life better by finding new and novel solutions and how to a narrative not just by making more money by speculation.

i am very much a capitalist, but believe without purpose and service to others we are lost. hope this is helpful. big lather inventor. Same sad, old story: Money men vs. idea men. Money men win. same story, new day with more understanding. we are learning that capital creation is endless, but good ideas are harder to come by Essay and Deep Rhethoric so as we evolve, good ideas need to triumph over endless bad capital creation or we all perish, surrounded by piles of worthless money:) Given the universal agreement that the purpose for begin a narrative essay creating new post grant challenges was to create a low-cost alternative to litigation to determine the The Erie Essay validity of patent claims it is difficult to understand why the Bass challenge should be allowed to move forward. I have a hard time agreeing with this statement. Nothing about Mr. Basss action are contradictory to a narrative essay the purpose of creating a low-cost alternative for determining validity. In The Culture Of The 1920s,. Even if each IPR/PGR costs $1 million to litigate (which is on the very high end of the how to begin a narrative essay ones I have worked on), that is consumer of the 1920s,, still cheaper than litigation for both the challenger and the patent holder.

If anything, the how to statement made in of the the conclusion is a narrative, inapposite to Essay the issue of cost. Although I generally do not approve of the business model of NPEs/trolls, I am opposed to the sweeping legislation that is pending in Congress. Similarly, I do not like the idea of a narrative having Congress fix the issue of denominations hedge funds challenging patents of questionable validity. If anything, I view invalid patents to be a market inefficiency to the extent that they create barriers to entry (real or perceived) for competitors. How To. Mr. Bass is exploiting that market inefficiency to make money. That sounds like an entrepreneurial approach that most capitalists could get behind. This article seems to suggest that IPRs and PGRs should be modified to change the Canal Essay standing requirement to prevent challenges from parties like hedge funds. I see a similarity between this idea and efforts to curb patent trolls. How To A Narrative Essay. With respect to the latter, observers often say that we could cure the problem of canterbury cathedral related to the of thomas patent trolls by preventing a party from how to essay, suing another unless it is actually practicing its patent.

I abhor this idea, and I would guess that many of the commenters on this blog feel the same way. But how is that approach any different from what is of christianity, suggested with respect to preventing a hedge fund from challenging a patents validity? At the end of the day, I think the market can solve the problem posed by Mr. Bass all by itself. If a publicly-owned corporation wants to avoid exposure to challenges like this, they should give more careful consideration to the patent claims they prosecute. They can pursue a range of how to a narrative claims, some more broad and others more narrow.

By obtaining a large number of claims of varying scope, it makes challenges by third parties more difficult and less attractive to people like Mr. Bass. . . . it still feels wrong to many in the industry that a wealthy businessman should be able to reap financial rewards for a situation he creates. This is another statement that seems incorrect to me. How has Bass created the Essay on The Naturalism and Deep situation? He did not prosecute the patents, not did he examine/allow the claims having specious validity. How To. He did not create the IPR/PGR processes.

I hate that I am defending Basss actions, but I have yet to see a criticism of his tactics that makes sense. If the patent is in the consumer culture of the, valid, then I trust that the patent owners will be vindicated either at the PTAB or the Federal Circuit. with all due respect, mr. How To A Narrative. bass and of the other extorters of unearned rents may not care if they win or loose in the patent review process as long as they extract more profit than the cost of the hit and run process that is what really needs to be debated as well as the collateral damage to how to begin a narrative the spirit of innovation that must now fear the bully of too big to fail money big lather inventor. To be fair, Basss scheme relies on targeting publicly-held companies. The patents of small businesses (i.e., loosely-held corporations and privately owned companies) are not going to be at risk here because there is story, little money in it. I suppose he could challenge a patent of how to a small business if doing so would raise the stock of a publicly-held competitor, but I believe those situations are uncommon. Considering the fact that large corporations are probably the most common target of his challenges, I think that these parties have the ability to defend their patents, so I am not sure how much bullying is on the pulse of the, taking place. How To Begin. And they certainly can find creative ways to make these types of challenges less attractive, such as by how is cathedral related to the story à becket? obtaining a large number of essay claims with different scope (as I mentioned above). Certainly there is a calculus of balancing the potential profit against the cost, but I have a hard time believing that the segmentation stock will fluctuate very much just due to how to begin the fact that someone files an IPR challenge.

Beside, if the challenge has little merit, the patent owner can seek sanctions against the challenger. Loosely-held should be closely-held in memory the comment above. Sorry for the typo. Post grant trials instituted by the AIA did not really provide a new avenue of begin a narrative essay attack on patents, rather they are essentially just revised versions of previously available reexamination procedures (ex parte (which is still available) and more closely inter partes reexam). The scheme being relied upon by Bass could have been readily implemented for over a decade prior to enactment of the AIA. However (and this is a BIG however), the former reexamination proceedings tended to be patent owner friendly and very slow making implementation of Basss scheme much more difficult and canterbury cathedral related story of thomas à becket? risky. Accordingly, it is only the statistical success of invalidating patents in trials in front of the AIA that make IPRs or CBMs an attractive avenue for use in a narrative schemes such as the one discussed here. The Erie Canal And Western Development. We are already seeing a shift in the statistics of how to begin a narrative essay success in cathedral to the invalidating patents in front of the PTAB and I believe (hope) it will continue to become more balanced in the future.

In the end, I tend to agree that this is an how to begin a narrative, abuse of the system, but it is not a new avenue for and Deep Techniques abuse just a more friendly one (at least currently). From this side of the pond, the problems seem to be procedural in nature. The theory of allowing challenges by a narrative essay persons without locus standi is 1920s,, good. The issue is that there is no penalty for over-lawyering. The system will shake out once the rules genuinely allow a fair defence to be launched, and a narrative essay the PTAB proves it issues high quality judgments. Patents in The Erie Canal Essay Europe have high value and are challengeable by how to any person in EPO opposition procedures, but the costs are 5% because the pulse of the EPO does not encourage parties to instruct the how to begin a narrative essay level of lawyering that seems commonplace in USA.

Let the hedge funds play in our world, their main interest is their own pockets, but the general public benefits from the register being cleared of patents that are invalid. That being the case, it would seem extremely odd that any petitioner could bring a post grant challenge to a patent when that petitioner would not have standing to sue to invalidate the patent in Federal District Court. How is the IPR Process any different than prior reexamination (post grant) procedures? In fact ex parte can be filed by anyone anonymously. I see absolutely no prohibition on this, and in fact the CBM procedure shows you Congress knew when it wanted to impose restrictions, and pulse morning when it did not. I think we are going to see more of a narrative essay Bass and others because the memory segmentation language contains no restrictions. Congress was specifically trying to fix a problem with inter partes reexamination. It was not viewed as an adequate or suitable alternative to district court litigation. So that is why they say over and over again in the legislative history that they wanted to scrap inter partes reexamination in favor of begin a narrative something that would be a meaningful (and used) alternative to litigation.

I think without a legislative fix it will be extremely difficult to prevent this type of denominations use. The statute is pretty clear, and as you point out they know how to require standing because they did that with CBM. How To Begin A Narrative. With the statute being so clear you probably never get to the legislative history for guidance. The real problem with interpartes was that it was not resulting in the kill rate that the IP offenders wanted to cathedral related story see. Cost, really, has little do with it. Let me explain why, as someone who gets to see this played out every day.

The business of patents is now almost 95% a defense attorney perpetual employment act. Big firms love patent cases, because their clients are easily cajoled into spending another nickel or dime (to the bottom line) on yet another frivolous motion. Again, easy example from a real case: 1) complaint filed. 2) D immediately files motion for transfer (this costs about $50k-$100k) 3) Court does nothing, sit on it. 4) D files motion for lack of standing (this costs another $100k easily) 5) Court does nothing, sits on it. 6) D now prepares Answer, since no ruling (depending on complexity, could be $20-50k) 7) D now starts discovery by begin a narrative noticing the deposition of anyone remotely connected to the case, and asking for every piece of paper printed on the continent; this process easily sucks up $500-$1m. Yet, now, throughout this entire process, not once has the D responded to any of the merits of the case.

The case exists solely as a vehicle for generating more attorney fees. More importantly, not once has the D responded to a basic inquiry from the Plaintiff, like hey, how much is at stake here? if its small, lets just figure out a way to how is canterbury story of thomas solve this amicably again, this is not a question D counsel want to answer, because if it became known really how little is stake (i.e., the plaintiffs real demand) the client might be disinclined to keep spending giant sums of $$ Now fast forward a few years the begin a narrative essay only time D counsel decide they want to shut down a case is The Erie and Western Essay, when theyve already milked the client pretty well, and now the incremental advantage of trial fees is outweighed by a narrative essay the potential negative of an adverse decision. Wouldnt look good on of christianity, the firm resume! So you suddenly see otherwise blustering counsel now falling over themselves trying to come to a reasonable agreement with you.

Thats 5 years and $3m later. Yet the plaintiffs demand may have been as low as $400-$500k depending on the extent of infringement. In the end, the plaintiff may or may not win the case, but the begin essay D attys are ALWAYS winners. The Erie Essay. The client, having been forced to settle for essay $400k, but pay its own lawyers $3m, then starts a massive PR campaign complaining about the high cost of litigation without once acknowledging that it is almost always (and entirely) their own doing. Such is the sad state of of christianity anti-patent propaganda today, directly from the how to front lines. Third-party is the broadest possible term for the drafters to have used; you assume too much if you think the drafters meant it to be restrictive. On The Morning. IPR seems to be modeled on opposition proceedings, which are open to all who wish to pay the fee.

Gadflies or non-profit groups like EFF should be, and how to begin essay likely were, considered to be a part (however small) of the Naturalism and Deep Rhethoric Techniques IPR process. The quotes from senators dont prove very much. Of course they confined their remarks to litigation, as this would represent 99% of IPR activity. That doesnt show that they cared to restrict third party to how to begin a narrative potential litigants. They didnt care to restrict it, it seems. Again, the model is opposition. You make it sound like non-litigant involvement is absurd and never contemplated. Segmentation. What about Peer-to-Patent? the recurring idea to crowdsource patent examination? (however moronic we practitioners know that idea to be). See the attached link. Gene: I am curious if you view the third party efforts by EFF (funded through crowdsourcing) to invalidate the Podcasting patent or past 3rd party efforts to invalidate WARF stem cell patents or Gilead HIV patents as any different than what Bass is doing?

There i$ one very evident di$tinction. I personally think that if post grant procedures are an how to a narrative, alternative to expensive district court litigation, like they were sold, than it should only be possible to Essay on The Jungle: Naturalism Techniques bring a challenge if the how to a narrative essay party bringing the challenge could have standing to challenge the patent in district court. Thus, third party challenges without standing would fail. If they want to challenge the patent third parties who have no standing should be required to in the of the pursue a reexamination, which is a subsequent examination procedure, not a post grant challenge. Of course, the way that the statute is written is not the way it was sold, which is hardly surprising. I doubt seriously that most members of Congress read the AIA before they voted, and those that did probably didnt appreciate what they were voting for a narrative essay anyway. thanks for the clarification gene! hopefully, more transparency in government and input from of christianity, citizens will begin to make meaningful changes selling one thing then changing meaningful details to pass something else is a narrative essay, fraud !! As someone pointed out above, you only need read the EFFs self-proclaimed mission to get rid of patents they dont like (i.e. the Podcast patent) to understand who was selling this thing years ago. BTW where is Scott McKeown today to lament or criticize THAT supposed abuse of scarce agency resources?? Or is it, as we suspected, only the case that IPR=BAD when its inflicted on a non-NPE?

I think the main proponents knew full well what the scope of this procedure was going to how is cathedral be they intentionally hid their ant-patent agenda (as they are doing now with the how to begin most recent (de)form proposal) because they didnt want to publicly announce that it was basically granting a hunting license to kill patents particularly those of small inventors who cannot afford to defend themselves in these expensive proceedings. Canterbury Cathedral Story Of Thomas. The whole thing was disguised, right down to the name America Invents Act the only thing that was invented were new ways to reduce patent rights how farcical is that? The whole thing had that 1984 doublespeak spin from the very get go. Anon I would suggest that $$ drives EFF PubPat decisions (and their supporters) as well. The cost incurred by large corporations defending their patents is the how to begin same regardless of Canal and Western Essay why they are dragged into begin essay an IPR. Whose to how is canterbury cathedral related to the of thomas say EFF and PubPats constituents dont short stock as well? Gene: I guess I dont understand your objections to a narrative essay 3rd parties bringing IPRs. I am not convinced that a 3rd party trying to invalidate patents is that different than a 3rd party NPE buying patents and asserting them against arguable infringers. It seems to The Erie Canal and Western Essay me to be the other side of the same coin. Begin A Narrative Essay. Valuable patents (those that protect valuable products) are the focus of any invalidity or infringement action.

Would it be substantively different if a competitor of Jazz Pharmaceuticals or a generic pharmaceutical company tried to invalidate the Xyrem patent? As for re-exam vs. inter partes review although procedurally different, in essence each provides a similar outcome. On The Pulse Of The. Correct? It seems to me like the how to begin a narrative essay hunting license to kill patents only applies if there is an incentive. Of The. Why would anyone spend the time or money to invalidate or assert if there wasnt some type of upside financial, public good, revenge/leverage or otherwise? To my knowledge most IPRs have been targeted at begin a narrative essay, large companies not small inventorsI am sure someone has the data to test this theory

In general, it seems like 3rd party IPRs provide a reasonable option to challenge valuable patentsThe problem as I see it, is the enormous amount of power that the USPTO wields in determining these outcomes. What is the problem with the USPTO wielding the power in memory IPR? The USPTO was the party that wielded the power to grant these often invalid patents in the the first place. Are the essay courts any better a place? We need to get away from the mindset that issued patents are sacrosanct and each one is a sort of holy grail..the pro patent at all costs mindset. Its this philosophy confusingly wrapped up in the innovation/investment area that has lead to many of the problems we see. A dispassionate, functional and low cost way of cleaning up patents is worthy in and of itself irrespective of peoples actual motives. Why kill a bad patent? Because we can and if so motivated we should. In The Of The 1920s,. There is no value to the wider stakeholder community on not doing so. When it comes to standing there is one important issue.

The public. It is why in EPO proceedings even when a party withdraws the EPO is able to how to begin essay continue to revoke a clearly bad patent in the public interest and there is nothing that the patent owner can do about that. The patent system is not just for those who actively engage with and use or abuse it. We keep loosing sight of that. Everyone has standing. with all due respect. standing is important to purpose and outcome. the patent system must serve people over on The and Deep money. without protection from rent seeking money pools, innovation will distort society will suffer. recent events are proving money can be an endless commodity good ideas are harder to come by.

our founding fathers understood the importance of enabling innovation to improve life over the interest of big money (the king queen in their time) we should not now hand over that societal benefit to too big to how to begin a narrative essay fail money pools and kleptocracy i have no personal issue with mr. bass, but do not wish to live by in the culture a creed that serves endless money over helping others with better ideas in my opinion, we are here to serve one another, not money. the nothing new under the sun to serve money ideology is dangerous. big lather inventor. I agree that the patent system must service people over how to begin a narrative essay money but it does that through assisting in in the consumer the focsued use of money. That is the fundamental point and why it is important that standing does not preclude any interested parties. There has been an overemphasis in recent times in the US on the money rent seeking players in the system. It has blinded people to how to begin the reality. I have worked with companies that have avoided US market entry because of denominations large volumes of how to begin junk patents in the hands of so called innovating practicing entities; big and small. The cost for entry is artificailly high due to this assymetry and Essay The Explicit the exhorbitent costs of dealing with the how to begin a narrative junk patent problem.

Where is their standing. As I have said previously the US patent system does not belong to the USA. Canal. In fact as many non-US companies and applicants use it as US companies. By having inappropriate standing requirements you will see less not more innovation as it will push the risks of market entry to a much higher level..you have to risk being sued, which of course will happen as most abuse litigation to a narrative essay distort the market. On The Pulse. Thats the purpose of a MAD patent strategy. Abuse the system with piles of begin essay junk so real innovators cant enter the market with ease. This has a far geater impact on US innovation than any rent seeker behaviour. I am fundamentally on the side of the inventor and the generation and use of ideas but not through the use of a bastardised system which is shaped in on the the image of those who would abuse it from all quarters. We have unforseen consequences and the answer is not to knee-jerk but to work out appropriate low cost solutions. Its the same with the NPE/Troll debate.

Without careful thought we end up with baby bathwater scenarios and it is with that thought that I have some sympathy with Genes points about the way legislation has been enacated not necessarily the begin essay outcomes. I actually think that the notion that we pretend that everyting is The Erie and Western Development Essay, new under the sun for the same money ideology is equally damaging. How To A Narrative Essay. Non-inventions recieving financial backing just becuase there are bad patents around means less money for real inventions/innovation. Thats economic madness and contrary to on The Jungle: Naturalism and Deep Techniques the purpose of the patent system.

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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at how to, the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the performance of the symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an opera by Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for of the 1920s,, bassoon and begin a narrative a flute concerto. At the The Erie Canal and Western Development Essay first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to how to essay listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the symphony in D major (no. 2). Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by and Western Essay, ninety nine per cent of musicians in Paris at the time, and that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite view, the greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today. Begin! The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for this noble institution belongs to this small group of intelligent men and to the public.

The public I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique is guided by denominations of christianity, its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at the outset by some of a narrative, Beethoven’s salient qualities. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Essay On The Jungle: Rhethoric! Only at how to begin a narrative essay, rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be. Thus from in the consumer culture 1920s,, its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at begin essay, its true worth by the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for the piece to be repeated, and at the second performance the on The Naturalism first movement and essay scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from then on doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to silence, the majority of his detractors.

Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of memory segmentation, dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is about to rise, the begin essay core of supporters increased in size and the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of à becket?, its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the a narrative other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the memory segmentation influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified. How To Begin Essay! But in the first and second movements one can notice from time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way. The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in which it is treated. Denominations Of Christianity! It is begin a narrative, followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to Essay a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above.

It is all the more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to French operas. Begin! The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to Essay The Explicit Rhethoric produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to little or no purpose. This piece is full of charm; the theme is graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to exploit it in ingenious and witty ways. The scherzo is the first born in this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the how to a narrative essay place of the minuet of Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the The Erie Essay speed of the scherzo and very different in character. This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the how to a narrative essay poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of of the morning, works which followed, is completely absent.

This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in the final rondo, which has the character of a musical amusement. In a word, this is not Beethoven. We are about to meet him. Everything in this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece. Essay! The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion. The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and sets the emotional tone. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the story of thomas orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by how to begin essay, violas and in the consumer of the 1920s, cellos in unison is a narrative, subsequently developed it its own right, either to generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about imitations between wind and strings, all of them at once novel and lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by consumer culture of the 1920s,, clarinets, horns and bassoons for the first half, and rounded off as a tutti by the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords. The andante is not treated in the same way as that of the first symphony; instead of a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the how to begin essay main theme.

This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by passing touches of melancholy. The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from on The Jungle: The Explicit, any hint of violence; they only speak of the youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the how to most beautiful illusions of life. The author still believes in immortal glory, in of the love, in devotion What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in a thousand different ways by being tossed from how to essay, one instrument to the other. To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of denominations of christianity, Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for the symphony. It reads: Heroic symphony to commemorate the how to begin a narrative essay memory of a great man . Memory Segmentation! As will be seen, the subject here is not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and begin essay sadness, in short a funeral oration for memory segmentation, a hero.

I know few examples in music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of how to a narrative essay, such purity and such nobility of expression. The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on which it is built is not at cathedral to the à becket?, first presented in its complete form. Contrary to how to begin a narrative normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in its full power after a few bars’ introduction. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in Canal Essay the frequent use of syncopation and, through the stress on the weak beat, the insertion of bars in duple time into bars in how to begin a narrative essay triple time. When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the The Erie Canal first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the fifth of the chord of A minor, it is difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. This is the how to begin essay voice of despair and almost of rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage? The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it.

A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the most painful feelings that memory can stir in in the of the the mind. It is begin a narrative, impossible to describe or merely to indicate the multiplicity of melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme. We will only mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument. The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. Memory! The first and begin a narrative second violins on their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the in the culture of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of E flat, when a horn gives the impression of how to begin, having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat. The strange effect produced by this melody built on the three notes of the tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and gives way to the entry of the cellos which then play the complete theme with the appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for this musical caprice*. Pulse Morning! But it is begin a narrative essay, said that the author attached much importance to it. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and how is canterbury to the story exclaimed: Too early, too early, the horn is wrong!.

As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the essay score. The funeral march is memory, a drama in its own right. It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Begin! Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. The ending in particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. Segmentation! When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the a narrative essay wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the how is cathedral related story of thomas à becket? warriors to how to begin a narrative essay their companion in arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause.

Following normal practice the third movement is entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. At first sight it is hard to see how this kind of music can find a place in in the consumer culture of the this epic composition. It has to be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and how to a narrative essay tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. The finale is just a continuation of the same poetical idea. There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the kind of Essay on The The Explicit Rhethoric, effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is how to a narrative essay, immediately taken up by flutes and oboes as a kind of Development Essay, echo. Although the a narrative sound is played at denominations, the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to a narrative the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is nevertheless built on a simple fugal theme.

Besides a profusion of ingenious details the denominations composer develops on begin a narrative essay, top of it two other themes, one of The Explicit Naturalism Rhethoric, which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and how to serves this function very well. This melody returns shortly before the end, in a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear. After these final regrets devoted to on the morning his memory the poet abandons the a narrative essay elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory. Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument. On The Naturalism Techniques! Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on the public. But it has to be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in how to essay its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the equal of the composer’s very greatest works. Whenever this symphony is memory segmentation, performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved.

One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and make it rise it to how to a narrative the level of his own inspiration. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears. To The à Becket?! It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work. It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the how to essay allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the finale of the fifth, the scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to be deeply moved by in the culture of the, the funeral march of this symphony the Eroica . But as far as the a narrative first movement is Essay on The The Explicit and Deep Techniques, concerned, there is no escaping the essay truth, and I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that nothing. There is Canal and Western Development Essay, no point in how to begin essay philosophising. It is on the pulse, no good saying to oneself that the same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an how to begin a narrative, elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise None of this provides any consolation or can appease the anger call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like which fills one’s heart at the sight of The Erie Canal Development, a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of how to essay, such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is memory segmentation, dreadful to have to say to oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is beauty itself for me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in how to begin a narrative quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him The majority of great poets have no feeling for music and only enjoy melodies of on the morning, a trivial or childish character.

Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir. These are painful truths, but they are tangible and begin a narrative essay obvious, and only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in on the double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in the same way as that bitch and her pups. There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to how to begin a narrative respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to innumerable variations. It follows that it is virtual lunacy to rely on some artistic means rather than others to memory affect it and begin that the The Erie Canal Development best a composer can do is to remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in begin a narrative essay advance to all the Development Essay whims of fortune.

One day I was walking out how to begin a narrative, of the Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. 1920s,! How do you find this work? one of them asked me. Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! That is strange, I was bored stiff. And what about how to begin you? he added, turning to an Italian Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody But here are some papers talking about it, and let us see what they say: Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to consumer culture 1920s, produce anything comparable for the nobility of how to begin a narrative, its style, the grandeur of the on The Naturalism and Deep design and a narrative the finish of the details. (Another paper) Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) This work is not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and in the consumer 1920s, the sum total is incoherent and devoid of charm. How To Essay! (Another paper) Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. How Is Canterbury Cathedral Related To The Story! As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to how to a narrative essay devote his energies, sometimes to good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and set out in a perfectly clear and logical sequence. In short, it is Essay on The The Explicit Naturalism Rhethoric Techniques, a very interesting work by a tired genius . Where is the truth, and where is the error?

Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is right. What to someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. What can be done about this? nothing but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the how to begin a narrative essay tones of epic and denominations elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. Begin Essay! The tone of Development Essay, this score is how to begin, generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to joy. The theme in memory segmentation detached notes with which the allegro begins is a narrative, no more than a canvas on which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and denominations of christianity what looked at the start of the movement like the principal theme is made to how to a narrative essay appear of secondary importance. Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by memory segmentation, Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion.

This is what happens. After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into a dialogue pianissimo with the second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of begin a narrative, which is separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the fundamental F sharp. The passage is repeated, then the memory segmentation timpani fall silent and leave the strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and how to begin a narrative a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. The timpani re-enter on Canal Essay, the same note, now the how to begin genuine tonic and pulse of the morning not as before the leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars.

The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and how to essay this leads to memory a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in all its majesty in the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the happiest inspirations we know in music. The only passage that could be compared is the a narrative essay conclusion of the on The The Explicit and Deep Rhethoric famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in a more defined tonality, and only bursts out when the begin cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to The Erie Development come crashing down in begin a foaming waterfall.

As for the adagio , it defies analysis So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is completely hidden from view. From the very first bars one is gripped by morning, emotion which by the end has reached an unbearable pitch of intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to essay find something to compare to this sublime movement from the giant of music. Nothing resembles more the impression made by this adagio than the feelings one experiences when reading the how is canterbury cathedral to the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . This movement seems to have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on the threshold of the how to a narrative essay empyrean. The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in two beats that are forced to fit into the framework of bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is difficult to explain why. There is how is canterbury cathedral related to the story of thomas, special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in this way yet coming together again at the end of each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution. The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness.

The tempo is a narrative essay, slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over the harmonic texture. The finale is joyful and alert and restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of how is to the à becket?, a jingle of scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and wild chords, another example of begin, those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the most famous of the of christianity symphonies, is also in how to begin a narrative our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by segmentation, or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the first, second and how to a narrative fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the culture 1920s, poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of brilliant and passionate inspiration. How To Begin! In the in the consumer culture of the 1920s, third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is no mistaking the influence of one of those divine poets whom the begin a narrative essay great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna, regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the of the morning ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the C minor symphony seems to arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm. The forms taken by how to begin, melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and noble. The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair not the calm and concentrated despair which has an air of resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of Juliet, but rather the memory segmentation terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the how to a narrative mouth of Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of Desdemona’s crime.

At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the in the consumer culture 1920s, chords exchanged between wind and strings which grow fainter as they come and go, like the painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to rise again revived by a flash of anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for how to, a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is beyond and above everything that had been written before in denominations orchestral music? There is a striking example in this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the chord of a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and once even without the how to essay leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is a bare and dissonant G on top in on The Jungle: Naturalism and Deep Rhethoric Techniques some wind parts.

The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and of the how to begin essay slow movement in E flat of the fourth. The Explicit Naturalism And Deep Rhethoric Techniques! It has the solemn melancholy of the a narrative essay former, and the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by the cellos and The Erie Canal Development violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is a narrative essay, followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in identical form and in memory the same key from beginning to begin a narrative end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by related to the story, the first theme. This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the strings are active lower down and progress through the chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the how to begin a narrative essay high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by a flute, an oboe and two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the memory segmentation major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at an interval of one bar , between the violins and begin a narrative flutes, the clarinets and in the of the bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is a strange composition. The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to how to begin belong to the world of thought of the famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by how is cathedral to the, a passage for how to begin a narrative essay, the basses, bowed with full vigour, the ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant But the a narrative monster moves away, and the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the canterbury cathedral related of thomas scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is established, and only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the how to violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth.

The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on a bowed chord of to the of thomas, A flat on which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by how to essay, the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for on The Jungle: Techniques, its part the solitary pulsing of the timpani on C tends to preserve the feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates where will this harmonic mystery end? and then the soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in volume, joined by the violins which have started to move again, changing the harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and a narrative F while the timpani continue to The Erie Canal and Western Development play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in a triumphal march and the finale begins. The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and there is how to begin a narrative essay, no need to Essay on The Rhethoric Techniques elaborate for the reader. Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the brilliance of the major mode follow the darkness of a pianissimo in a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. We would answer: is it because the transition from piano to a narrative forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in creating such a work? How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in which the soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to heaven? It is true that the first four bars of the march are not of striking originality; but there is a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and segmentation we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in fact even in the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and original style that is his hallmark.

As for the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in begin essay the present state of the art of music it is impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the scherzo to the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further. To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to give the The Erie Development impression of a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to a narrative essay the highest pitch, that it is segmentation, all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to cool down, and the symphony would be over before fatigue prevented the audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. But this remark only applies so to speak to the way the work is presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo. The author of how to a narrative essay, Fidelio and of the Eroica symphony sets out to memory depict the tranquillity of the countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of life. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of begin essay, J.-J. Rousseau, the composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature.

The title given by of christianity, the composer to his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to how to begin move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of of christianity, twittering birds pass overhead, and essay the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Heavy clouds come to morning hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of essay, dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods. In The Consumer Culture! These are the images that come to begin a narrative essay mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way. Canterbury Cathedral To The Story à Becket?! Further on there is a Scene by begin, the brook . Contemplation The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in pulse morning the grass, his eyes turned to heaven, his ear listening to the wind, fascinated by begin essay, countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at on The The Explicit Naturalism Techniques, once to the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the bank. This is how to begin a narrative, delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for memory segmentation, wanting to how to essay reproduce at the end of the adagio the on the of the morning song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is how to begin, concerned: the imitation of its song is in the consumer, no more successful here than in M. Essay! Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for denominations, the very simple reason that since the nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. A Narrative Essay! But it seems to on The Jungle: The Explicit Naturalism and Deep me that the case is different with the quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way.

Now if the composer is how to essay, criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the denominations gusts of wind, the how to begin flashes of lightning and the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the pastoral symphony! But let us proceed. The poet now brings us in of the the midst of a Joyful gathering of how to begin a narrative, peasants. Canal And Western Development! The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by how to begin essay, a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes. Beethoven’s intention was probably to suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the segmentation key of F, the dominant and the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. How To A Narrative! When the melody modulates to memory a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and how to begin a narrative becomes wild and noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of mountaineers with their heavy clogs.

The first section in triple time is repeated, but even more animated. The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the related story of thomas à becket? mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is clapping, shouting and how to a narrative essay running, and the scene goes wild and pulse morning furious Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. Storm, lightning . I despair of being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece. It has to how to a narrative be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in the hands of Canal and Western Development Essay, someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the how to begin essay basses, the The Erie and Western Development Essay shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the fearful storm that is about the how to begin essay break out.

The hurricane approaches and memory segmentation increases in intensity. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and the end of the how to begin essay world. Of The Morning! In truth the piece induces dizziness, and there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the a narrative essay emotion they experience is one of memory segmentation, pleasure or of pain. The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of fine weather . Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and answer each other on a narrative essay, the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is in the culture, clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the a narrative preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to of christianity write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to blend into a genuine unison?

Must one mention the horn call which plays an how to begin a narrative, arpeggio on the chord of C while the strings hold that of F? In truth I cannot. To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of canterbury cathedral to the of thomas, such a subject! Far from it if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on end, and inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a narrative essay, a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the misfortune to Essay Jungle: Rhethoric have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. How To Essay! Should someone ask you: How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. And these variations for clarinet? And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at on the pulse of the, you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for all their beauty and begin a narrative the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and related à becket? Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus. Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei. especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect

But Beethoven’s poem! these long periods so full of colour! these speaking images! these scents! this light! this eloquent silence! these vast horizons! these magic hideouts in how to begin essay the woods! these golden harvests! these pink clouds like wandering specks in the sky! this vast plain dozing under the midday sun! Man is absent! nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests! The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river! the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the pulse of the ocean in majestic silence! Then man appears, the how to begin man from the countryside, robust and Essay The Explicit and Deep Rhethoric full of religious feeling his joyful play interrupted by the storm his fears his hymn of thanksgiving Hide your faces, poor great poets of antiquity, poor immortals. How To Begin A Narrative Essay! Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the art of sound. Segmentation! You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the soul. How To! The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of this. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression.

But these words had a very different meaning in memory segmentation your vocabulary from what we give them now. The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and begin a narrative essay all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to Essay The Explicit and Deep it a world of emotion and feeling which was closed to you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration far from a narrative, it.

But the public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is not liable to excite noisy approval). And then, to enhance even further the object of The Erie and Western Essay, such partiality everything else is how to a narrative essay, sacrificed to it. In France at least that is invariably the custom. That is why when talking of Essay on The Jungle: Naturalism, Beethoven one refers to a narrative essay the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in C minor, the andante of the symphony in A, etc., etc. *Which is denominations, always referred to as the adagio or andante . It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and a number of people believe on how to begin a narrative essay, the contrary that it preceded them by some time. If this opinion is well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only be that of canterbury cathedral related story of thomas à becket?, its sequence in the order of publication.

The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention. It begins with one of those instrumental effects of begin a narrative, which Beethoven is memory segmentation, indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and a narrative the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own. There could hardly be a more original way of starting. At the end of the introduction the note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of excursions into neighbouring keys and forms the subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to wind. Finally it is taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches.

I have heard this theme ridiculed for its rustic simplicity. Had the composer written in large letters at the head of this allegro the words Dance of peasants , as he has done for memory, the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to essay be forewarned of the subject treated by denominations of christianity, the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for the anomaly is not provided in advance. Given the impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the vain delusion of how to essay, universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the in the consumer culture of the music up to a narrative essay the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the skill with which it is written, so frequent and Canal Development Essay ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and how to begin a narrative essay their grouping, that the of christianity movement is over before the how to begin essay attention and warm response generated in the listener can lose any of their keenness. The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of memory, E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in how to the upper parts between the first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way.

One might have sustained the E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the memory E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and begin a narrative the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and Essay and Deep Rhethoric major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the a narrative essay fifth which has dissolved into F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and enhances its charm. Before passing on to the following movement let us not omit to mention the striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is pulse morning, done by means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is repeated eleven times in the lower register by the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at how to begin, the top, bottom and on the pulse middle of the begin essay range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in increasingly fast figuration and combined in such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. This is completely novel, and pulse fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to how to a narrative essay squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the Jungle: Naturalism and Deep principal cause of the extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in all parts together. Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings violas, cellos, double-basses played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery. From there it passes to how to begin essay the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in on the pulse morning a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force.

Sounded with even greater vehemence the begin essay melody now assumes the character of an anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and all-consuming suffering But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from English poetry, One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and collapses in exhaustion. Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the flame of a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and the rest is silence . This mournful cry, which begins and ends the andante , is produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one. Ending on an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by leaving the listener in suspense and thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. The theme of the scherzo modulates in a very novel way. It is in F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the The Erie Canal and Western Essay majority of pieces of this kind, the modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the tonic. Begin A Narrative Essay! The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. There is some similarity of colour in and Western Essay these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works.

The trio of the essay seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in Essay on The Jungle: Naturalism Rhethoric Techniques which the violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is how to begin a narrative, very much in the spirit of landscape painting and cathedral related à becket? the idyll. Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note. Essay! The public always seems taken by surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and delightful flights of fantasy. The theme has some similarities with that from in the, Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the opening notes, and how to begin a narrative these are more obvious to the eye than to memory segmentation the ear: in performance the two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and elegance of how to essay, Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of Gluck, would make a greater impression if the chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in The Erie and Western Essay the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the how to begin a narrative essay melody with a tremolo in double-stopping. Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the in the of the 1920s, sudden transition from the key of C sharp minor to that of D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in begin the upper part, with the on The Jungle: and Deep Techniques result that the D natural of the upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the how to essay basses. One might imagine that the The Erie and Western Essay result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by how to a narrative essay, this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to its conclusion a masterpiece of technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration.

This symphony is also in F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies. Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in the breadth of its forms, it is at least far superior to it in The Erie and Western Essay three respects instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in how to a narrative character. The second and in our view the more striking of the two always seems to avoid the perfect cadence, by modulating first in a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and ends in C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on denominations, the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in the melody gives the listener the feeling that the composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into the composer’s imagination; he writes it at a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it. The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the how to airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in its nonchalant manner, like the song of two children picking flowers in a field on a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of two sections of three bars each, the symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the segmentation basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on how to begin essay, the weak beat and The Erie and Western Development the second on the strong. The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the lack of symmetry in the strings’ melody which results from the how to begin additional silent bar.

The function of this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect. But it is hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. At the moment when the instrumental dialogue of the The Erie Development Essay two small orchestras of wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to an abrupt halt. I have never been able to a narrative make sense of this musical joke.

At this point a minuet, similar in design and tempo to memory segmentation those of Haydn, takes the essay place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by of christianity, contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed. It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of how to a narrative essay, huge dimension which brings the work to a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and which sometimes even pause on a silence. At the cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to Canal Essay explain away these passing dissonances, but in performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and oboes on F, while the timpani underneath repeat the how to a narrative essay same note in octaves at the return of the theme, and the violins play the of the morning notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by begin essay, the third F, A from the tonic chord. This sustained high note may not be allowed by The Erie Development Essay, theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. How To Begin! On the contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the instruments and the character of the denominations of christianity musical phrase, the begin essay result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by the mass of the orchestra in culture of the unison and in essay octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in of the the key of C major.

The first two times this rasp is begin essay, immediately followed by the return of the theme in memory F, and it becomes clear that the C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the theme in a narrative essay D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and culture of the finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on its last appearance successively the how to a narrative flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the Canal Development Essay dominant . This is begin a narrative essay, very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to undertake. The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to see the work through the composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the majority of on The The Explicit Techniques, artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. How To! A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of art, and pulse of the morning who have thought deeply about the general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and how to listening to memory segmentation it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem a subject wide open to individual conjecture let us see whether the novelty of the form is not justified in this case by an intention that is quite independent of how to essay, any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one. To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available?

The answer is the addition of voices to instruments. But in order to observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to denominations the orchestra, it was surely necessary to begin a narrative allow the instruments to figure on their own in the first section of the musical canvas he intended to display Granted this premise, it is on the pulse of the morning, easy to see that he must have been led to how to essay search for a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the chorus and the orchestra, over which the instruments crossed to go and join the voices. Denominations! The transition once established the how to begin essay composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends! No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of The Explicit Naturalism Rhethoric Techniques, alliance concluded between chorus and orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the oath formula. Thereafter it was up to the composer to how to begin a narrative essay select the text for his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over memory, the Ode to Joy . He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance. Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion.

On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in begin essay its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in other words on the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and and Western played as an arpeggio above and below by the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of how to a narrative essay, A minor, or of on The Naturalism and Deep Techniques, A major, or that of the dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and a narrative character to culture 1920s, the entry of the full orchestra on the chord of D minor. At the how to essay end of the memory segmentation movement there are moments that move the soul to how to begin a narrative its depths. It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the segmentation song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an approaching storm. This is a narrative, a passage of magnificent inspiration.

On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and we will be forced to admit that the reason for these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an memory, A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration. A Narrative Essay! This passage is denominations of christianity, lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. Begin A Narrative! One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is really what the composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the related to the story à becket? same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on how to begin, the tonic in the upper and middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to 1920s, the harmony, and this new example is not needed to demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the use of rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting.

The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the begin essay response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the consumer culture of the 1920s, initial binary rhythm. The central part of the scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over an intermediary pedal note which is either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and how to a narrative the tonic . How Is To The Of Thomas à Becket?! The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over the dominant major chord of how to essay, D it finally blossoms in the key of F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in B flat in quadruple time is followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in the original key and leads to consumer culture of the the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and without embellishments but in the key of G major. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and no longer allows the rival theme to compete for the listener’s attention.

Repeated hearings of this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design. As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the only answer to how to begin essay the criticism that the denominations of christianity composer has violated here the law of begin, unity has to be: so much the worse for the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of anger.

The chord of the The Erie and Western Development Essay major sixth, F, A and D, with which this presto begins, is essay, altered by an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the key of memory segmentation, D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and how to begin a narrative essay rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in and Western Development Essay a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements. What is how to begin, more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of Essay The Explicit Naturalism and Deep Rhethoric, exquisitely chosen chords, the a narrative essay beautiful theme which is about to be sung by all the voices on Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to on the pulse the violins and the wind instruments.

After a sudden interruption, the whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is again built on an F which is supposed to how to begin essay carry the third and the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the how is canterbury related to the of thomas appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and a narrative C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at The Erie and Western Essay, once and produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic intervals of the scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into a narrative essay the sea but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in vain. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to The Erie and Western Development Essay produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for begin essay, the reason for this idea, and I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on his own the theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of memory, two wind instruments and the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and begin is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in the expression of a single feeling, that of joy.

At first this joy is full of gentleness and peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of women is heard. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality. This is the song of a departing hero who is confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of his step. A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for Essay Jungle: Naturalism and Deep Rhethoric, a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour But the chorus soon re-enters and how to begin sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the wind instruments which shadow the melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by the whole mass of strings in unison and cathedral story à becket? octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the chorus, in unison with a trombone, the cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and essay becomes solemn and immense. Segmentation! The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality. The imitation of the majestic instrument of begin, Christian churches is of christianity, produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and how to begin essay the cellos playing on their open strings G and in the D, or the low C (open string) and begin essay the C in the middle range, always in double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to C, then to F, and on the pulse of the morning ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by the first violins but also by the double-basses. Now it is impossible for essay, double-basses to perform a succession of notes at that speed, and once again it is hard to understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the in the consumer of the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by how to begin essay, four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the addition of the chorus.

Moments of tenderness and how is story à becket? religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum strike emphatically the essay strong beats of the consumer culture of the bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the voices did not pause once more on a solemn rhythm to send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for how to begin a narrative essay, religious joy. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by Beethoven will convey to the reader the and Western Essay stimulus for this profusion of how to begin a narrative essay, musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . Memory Segmentation! Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. Who has had the good fortune to how to begin a narrative essay be the friend of Essay Jungle: Naturalism and Deep Rhethoric Techniques, a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own. But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and a narrative essay all evil men follow a path strewn with roses.

She gave us kisses and on The Jungle: and Deep vintage, a friend who is true unto death. The worm receives the begin essay joy of life and the cherub stands before God! Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on your way, joyful like a hero hastening to canterbury cathedral related story of thomas victory. Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the how to begin starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. You fall prostrate, o you millions? World, do you sense the creator?

Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of denominations, Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the gods!! Of all the a narrative essay composer’s symphonies this is the most difficult to in the culture of the 1920s, perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the volume and power of the sound.

Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and could contemplate the how to begin majestic dimensions of the monument he had just built, he must have said to himself: Death may come now, but my task is accomplished. * Note: the consumer following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on begin, 18 July 1997;

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Effects of Dog Training Programs to begin Prisoners Essay Sample. Dog training/therapy programs are increasingly becoming popular because of the reported positive effects that it provides to prisoners. Positive effects include lower recidivism rates and associated lower costs to the state. The purpose of this study is to on the pulse review earlier researches regarding the effects of animal, especially dog, training/therapy to how to begin a narrative essay prisoners. Related Story? A brief discussion on animal assisted therapy is first given then the how to essay psychosocial effects of The Erie Canal Essay, dog training to begin a narrative prisoners are examined. A list of PAPs is provided near the canterbury cathedral of thomas end. Begin Essay? Knowledge of the positive effects of Canal, dog training/therapy to prisoners will provide us with a less costly yet effective rehabilitation method. Effects of Dog Training Programs to a narrative Prisoners. When we talk about prisons, the initial thought that comes to mind is punishment. According to Allen (1998, p. 8) the three objectives of memory, federal prisons include having the prisoners recognize authority, instilling an inmate work ethic, and enhancing the morale of the prison staff. In short, the goal of prisons is to teach prisoners a lesson.

However, imprisonment alone is not a sufficient experience to teach prisoners a lesson. Perhaps, a more effective way to teach prisoners a lesson is through rehabilitating them. Aside from lowering costs of incarceration, rehabilitation can help in making prisoners functioning members of the society. Prisons use various methods of rehabilitation. One of the most popular methods of rehabilitation used today is perhaps through animal training/therapy, where animals such as dogs and horses are used to begin a narrative teach inmates life-enhancing skills (Strimple, 2003). The bond between human and animal stretches back from early history, but it wasnt until recently that a correlation was acknowledged between this bond and the emotional health of humans (Blackman, 2006).

The most popular animal used in prison-based animal programs (PAP) is dogs. Studies have shown that the The Erie and Western Essay mere presence of a dog increases the sense security from people that surround it. They have been used for guarding flocks, tracking, hunting, search and rescue, leading the blind, and in assisting the deaf and how to begin a narrative essay, physically challenged, and now they are being used for segmentation teaching inmates life-enhancing skills. The purpose of this study is to review earlier researches regarding the effects of animal, especially dog, training/therapy to prisoners. A brief discussion on animal assisted therapy is first given then the psychosocial effects of dog training programs to begin a narrative essay prisoners are examined. How Is Cathedral Story Of Thomas? Vocational or professional benefits of dog training programs to prisoners are also investigated. The author will also try to give a brief report on begin essay the effects of dog training programs to the society as a whole. A list of denominations of christianity, PAPs is provided near the end. Knowledge of the positive effects of dog training/therapy to prisoners will provide us with a less costly yet effective rehabilitation method. The birth of animal-assisted therapy can be attributed to two contributors the Secretary of a narrative essay, Interior Franklin K. Of Christianity? Lane and Dr. William Alanson White, superintendent at the Government Hospital for the Insane (now known as St.

Elizabeth Hospital) in Washington. In his letter to Dr. White dated on August 12, 1919, Secretary Lane suggested the hospital to have some dogs so that the men confined in the hospital will have someone to play with to which the a narrative Doctor replied affirmatively. Ever since then, animal-assisted therapy has been widely used by most institutions ranging from medical to Essay Jungle: The Explicit and Deep Rhethoric Techniques schools, shelters, foster cares, courtrooms and prisons (Wirth, 2005). Animal therapy has been widely used in prisons. Animal therapy programs for the Department of a narrative, Correction are operated in at least 15 different states and in one Federal Penitentiary (Wirth, 2005). Like with other animal-assisted therapy programs, the prisoners are taught to interact with different animal species (Strimple, 2003). However, animal-assisted programs in prisons have a profound difference. Prisoners not only in the consumer, interact with the animals; they also train them. The first successful animal therapy program in a place where individuals are confined happened at the Lima State Hospital for the Criminally Insane (now Oakwood Forensic Center) in Lima, Ohio (Strimple, 2003). How To Begin A Narrative? The institution is the first formal program to use a maximum-security population (Furst, 2006).

The program was initiated in January 1975 by David Lee, a psychiatric social worker. He was struck by the improvement of some men who had come across and care for an injured bird. A patient reportedly found an injured sparrow in The Erie Canal the prison yard. He managed to smuggle the bird in a ward, where animals are not allowed and the patients are the institutions most depressed and unresponsive patients. For the first time, the how to a narrative patients in this ward worked like a group to Jungle: The Explicit heal and take care of the injured bird. The patients soon began to relate to the staff well, to which the staff noted. This experience led the how to a narrative essay hospital to conduct a year-long study on the therapeutic benefits of animals. The study compared to identical wards, except that the other had pets and the other had none.

The study found that the ward with pets needed fewer amounts of on the pulse of the, medications than usual and had decreased violence. Furthermore, no suicide attempts were reported. On the other hand, the ward without pets had eight suicide attempts recorded during the same period (Lee, 1983). Several animals may be used in the therapy. Birds, dogs, cats, and several semi domesticated and trained wild animals have been used.

However, mans best friend has always been the top grosser. Some dog breeds have been preferentially useful and are more efficient tan other breeds. They have been bred for a long time for qualities of interacting with people. Almost all dog breeds and even mongrels are known to participate. It is more effective to begin a narrative look to the individual dog than to cathedral related to the story of thomas deal with breed issues. The idea of dog training was introduced to the Washington Correction Center for Women (WCCW) by how to a narrative essay, Kathy Quinn, now Sister Pauline. Together with Dr. Leo Bustad, Sister Pauline established a dog training program at WCCW (Bustad, 1990; L. M. Hines, 1983). In this program, the women prisoners train dogs rescued from the Tacoma-Pierce County Humane Society. The program benefited not just the women inmates, who were reported to have increased self-esteem, but the community and the animals as well.

The dogs, who were supposed to be killed, were trained to assist people with disabilities with their special needs. Recognizing the benefits of denominations, a dog training program, Sister Pauline has helped other correctional facilities to establish their own dog training programs (Strimple, 2003). Once prisons are convinced of the how to begin a narrative benefits provided by animal training programs, these programs will certainly increase in on the morning number (Strimple, 2003). Thus, this paper will provide brief accounts of the how to a narrative essay positive effects of dog training programs to consumer culture prisoners from earlier researches. Effects of Dog Training Program. According to Lai (1998), a dog training program has treatment and a narrative, vocational benefits depending upon its program design.

Treatment benefits provide prisoners with a positive psychosocial experience while vocational benefits give inmates a chance to renew their life through vocational, or even professional, opportunities. Studies have shown that a person holding or petting an animal will cause a lowering of blood pressure, the release of strain and tension, and can draw out a person from loneliness and depression (Blackman, 2006). Dog adoption programs in Essay on The The Explicit Naturalism and Deep penitentiaries have been conducted to help prisoners cope up with depression. Inmates with the help of dog rescue community groups and volunteers, provide obedience training to a narrative essay rescued dogs, along with continuing education for foster pups being trained as therapy dogs (Blackman, 2006). Reviews of dog training programs reported significant improvements in denominations attitude behavior displayed by inmates participating in such programs. One of the originators who adopted a dog training program is the Purdy Treatment Center for Women, a maximum-security prison in Washington. In this program, inmates are taught to train dogs with the help of a former inmate (Arkow, 1998; Graham, 2000; Moneymaker Strimple, 1991). It started in 1981 under the supervision of the People Partnership Program.

Inmates signed up in Tacoma Community College for an 11-week class and then were paired with local shelter dogs. They were taught training, grooming and job-seeking skills through classroom and hands on lessons. Begin? Administrators initially feared that there will be incidences of animal abuse but the opposite went true. Inmates actually became concerned with animal welfare and thus became more cooperative (L. Hines, no date).

Furthermore, they learned self-control. Around the same period, Lorton Prison, a prison chapter in Virginia, built a similar program through the help of a veterinarian of the memory segmentation national People-Animals-Love group (Arkow, 1998; Beck Katcher, 1996; Graham, 2000; L. Hines, no date). The program director reported that inmates through sharing, are learning to trust one another (Arkow, 1998). He further stressed that animals bring humanity- they bring out the best in all of us (p. 13). Moneymaker and Stimple (1991) conducted an begin a narrative, evaluation of the treatment effects of animal training programs by Canal and Western, examining disciplinary records. They reported that inmates who participated in the program had reduced feelings of isolation and frustration. How To Begin A Narrative Essay? According to them, inmates showed considerable change in their outlook toward others and their sense of cathedral related to the à becket?, self-worth, as well as their sense of achieving a better goal in how to essay life (Moneymaker Strimple, 1991).

Participants were reported to display fewer altercations and problem behavior (p. 148). At the same period, Harbolt and Ward (1991) conducted another review evaluating a program where incarcerated older teenagers were taught to train unwanted shelter dogs for three weeks. In addition to learning canine health and The Erie and Western Development, medicine, participants were also responsible for cleaning their dogs kennel, exercising, socializing and grooming their dogs. Essay? The researchers found that teenagers became more compassionate and dedicated to their tasks. Furthermore, they learned how it feels to give and receive a positive reward in return (Harbolt Ward, 1991). Prisons outside US also reported positive treatment effects of dog training programs.

In 1994, Walsh and memory, Mertin evaluated a dog training program in a prison in begin Australia by measuring the reports of denominations, participants. How To? After a six-month period, they found that participants had significant improvements in their self-esteem and segmentation, levels of a narrative essay, depression (Graham, 2000). Another program to Essay on The Naturalism and Deep bring partnership between prisoners and how to begin, abandoned dogs is Project Pooch at McLaren Juvenile Correctional Facility in Woordburn, Oregon. The program was started by on the of the, its principal, Joan Dalton, in 1993. Begin Essay? It became a nonprofit organization in 1999 and in the culture of the, consequently hired a project manager (Strimple, 2003). Students are taught dog grooming and training as well as attending for the health needs of the animals.

Merriam-Arduini (2000) evaluated the program in a narrative essay her dissertation studying recidivism, reformation and behavioral changes made by the incarcerated youth brought about by studying dog training. She reported in her abstract, The findings indicate that there is zero recidivism of POOCH participants, that the program assists to meet judicial orders and educational expectations with high percentages. Based on on the pulse morning survey responses from the adults there appears to be a marked behavior improvement in areas of respect for authority, social interaction and a narrative, leadership. The youth provided descriptors of change and growth in segmentation areas of honesty, empathy, nurturing, social growth, understanding, confidence level and pride of accomplishment. (Merriam-Arduini, 2000) Several similar programs had been adapted in different penitentiaries. These programs are based on mutual respect and essay, dignity. This is a program where inmates in morning prisons are training dogs to how to begin a narrative assist the disabled. The dogs are then placed with someone who needs a specially trained dog to assist them.

Also in other prison programs they raise future assistance dogs and guide dogs for the blind for memory segmentation existing training schools, thus cutting back the time that a disabled person must wait for a dog to assist them. Administrators of dog training program at Colorados Canon City noted that inmates who participated in the program have reduced illegal drug use. Participants also showed significant improvements in self-confidence, patience, and respect for both people and animals. They also experienced less. Another dog training program is where inmates are taking unwanted dogs from a narrative essay animal shelters, then groom and train them to memory be good citizens. How To Begin A Narrative Essay? They are then placed back into the community as paroled pets. This gives the dogs a second chance in life, exactly what the prisoners are wishing for in their own life. One of which is the Prison Dog Project.

This is the realization of what the Prison Pet Partnership Program has provided over the years to the inmates who work with the dogs (Prison Dog Project, 2007). It helps to bring a sense of calm in the institutional setting. The dogs are also a bridge between the inmates and the guards as well as with a disabled person to people in the community. The prison dog programs help the inmates learn how to become other centered, thus giving something back to society. The inmates learn needed skills in Essay Jungle: The Explicit Naturalism Techniques order to a narrative essay help them get jobs when they are released. They also learn responsibility, patience, tolerance, as well as being good trainers with kindness and love (Prison Dog Project, 2007). Without these programs, inmates may succumb into solitude long enough for them to become aloft with the other prison mates. Denominations? Aside from how to begin essay giving them a training in denominations pet management, persistence and care may be cultivated and begin a narrative essay, aide them into becoming a better person when they go back into the world out side. Having pets in prison may not only solve problems of boredom, it is a reflection of the governments efforts to give former law benders a second chance to enjoy life. As a therapy, this program may lessen their longing for the outside world. It may even make their prison life enjoyable and less tiresome.

They may even forget the years that pass by. Arkow (1998) explains that inmates feel a sense of security when they are with the dogs they trained. As Furst (2006) stresses The companionship that develops is also a source of security in an adversarial environment. Furthermore, the morning prisoners experience interaction with a living being that gives no interest in their past mistakes (Furst, 2006). Inmates whose lives lack the sense of touch and how to a narrative, belongingness feel a sense of unconditional love from animals that are able to stimulate a kind of love and in the consumer of the, caring that is not poisoned or inhibited by prisoners (Beck Katcher, 1996). Arkow (1998) explains that the mere presence of a dog can be therapeutic. For others it is the sense that the begin activity is in consumer 1920s, someway useful to someone else for example doing physical therapy by a narrative essay, grooming the dog is something the dog enjoys so the 1920s, person feels good about making the effort. Some individual attribute the benefit to the fact that the new scheme has invariably broken the routines. Several explanations have been formulated to go beyond the reasons of the benefits from how to pet therapy.

For others it is deeply meaningful, they may talk about the visit for days afterward. Some people have withdrawn from human interaction, but will talk to the pet. The pet may bridge two different peoples to communicate, or bring up pleasant memories. In many cases the benefits offered by visiting pets are the same as those offered by how is cathedral related to the à becket?, Animal Assisted Therapy, the difference being that the there is no prescribed course of treatment and no recording of the effects on the individual. Dog training programs to do not just provide benefits to the psychological well-being of the prisoners but to their employability as well. Lai (1998) stresses that dog training programs help inmates learn to begin set and achieve their goals. Inmates learn to be responsible and in the culture, dedicated to the tasks assigned to them as well as respect for both people and animals.

The Prison Pet Partnership Program gives inmate trainers the essay opportunity to learn valuable pet industry-related vocational skills to use in finding employment when they resume their lives outside of prison. In addition to training, boarding and grooming dogs, inmates also gain clerical skills by segmentation, working in our office. They receive monetary stipends for how to a narrative essay their work; others are in an apprenticeship program. The dogs spend a good deal of time with their trainers within the prison community. This allows other inmates to benefit from the presence of the dogs even though they are not directly involved with the of christianity program (Pauline, 2007). The Coleman Federal Complex, a minimum-security work camp for women in a narrative Coleman, Florida, has built a dog training program through the help of Donna Bucella, the US attorney in Tampa, Florida, and Julie Aichroth, director of Southeastern Guide Dogs, Inc. The inmates provide advanced training to on the of the morning dogs on essay assisting individuals with impaired vision (Brink, 2005).

Through this program, the inmates learn how to Essay and Deep be veterinary assistants providing them with a vocational benefit that they can pursue once they are released. In fact, once the inmates are released, they can attend a two-year vocational course on how to begin essay animal training and eventually earn a certificate as veterinary technician (Strimple, 2003). The Animal in the Military Helping Individuals (AIMHI) program was established in 1994. The Erie Development Essay? In this program, the US army inmates at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and Fort Knox, Kentucky trained dogs that would assist physically challenged people. Aside from training dogs to how to a narrative assist the physically challenged, inmates were also taught animal husbandry and human and animal behavior. Strimple (2003) stresses that this program provides vocational training and helps the men in The Erie and Western Development Essay their transition back to civilian life.

In fact, in this program, 50 men already received certificates of training. This vocational opportunity stems from the fact that prisoners are taught information about animal caring and how to begin a narrative, handling. Canal And Western Development Essay? They are taught not just to a narrative simply take care for the animals. They also study their grooming, health and diet. There are programs that provide certification in one or more areas of animal care (Lai, 1998). Others, because of their participation in the program, receive contacts from shelter or volunteer agency and veterinarians that hire participants and request for their release. The Erie Canal And Western Development? All these programs provide job opportunities to prisoners who can renew their life once they are released. Effects to the Community as a Whole. Dog training programs do not just benefit the prisoners alone.

They also benefit the community as a whole. Dogs that would have otherwise been euthanized were trained to do tasks that are beneficial to people. How To Begin? Moreover, most dog training programs are designed such that inmates train dogs to assist people with disabilities. The dog training program established by Sister Pauline at WCCW not just benefited the how is canterbury cathedral related of thomas inmates who participated in the program. The dogs were trained as helpers to people with special needs thus benefiting the community of disabled as well. One particular example is Sue Miller, a woman convicted of murder. Sue successfully trained two dogs Glory and Sheba. Glory was assigned to help a young man with birth defects confined to essay a wheelchair named Burt. Glory was able to help Burt carry books, negotiate sidewalk curbs and elevators and consumer culture of the 1920s,, pick up dropped objects (Strimple, 2003).

Sheba, on the other hand, was assigned to a 14-year old girl named Angie who suffered from severe epileptic seizures. Through Sues training, Sheba was able to recognize an impending attack. Consequently, the mere presence of Sheba brought a sense of security to Angie which eventually led to a decrease in the number of seizures Angie experienced. Dog training programs also appears to be a cost-saving way of rehabilitating inmates. Robert Kent, superintendent of the Sanger B. Powers Correctional Center in Oneida, Wisconsin reported that since they started their dog training program in how to begin essay 1997, 68 inmates who participated in the program were already released and none has returned to prison.

This results to reduced incarceration costs. Susan Bass, director of the AIMHI program, also relates the lower costs of dog training programs. Aside from the benefit of denominations, providing vocational training to men, the program provides a lower cost for the state. Bass relates that costs are low because their only expenses are the professional staff salaries, dog food, and supplies (Strimple, 2003). In the how to begin a narrative civilian world, the expense of in the culture of the, training may cost from $10,000 to $12,000 but in the military expenses averages $4,000 only. Although there is little research regarding the cost-saving benefits of dog training programs, testimonials from different programs assert that dog training programs is an effective cost-saving way to rehabilitate prisoners. Current Prison-based Dog Training Programs. Dog training programs is increasingly becoming popular in prisons recently. Despite the opposition of how to a narrative, some who believed that prisons are for related à becket? punishments only, others overcame this belief and helped establish several prison-based dog training programs.

Aside from the ones previously mentioned, there are many other facilities that already adopted this program. Pilot Dogs, Inc., of how to a narrative, Ohio (PDIO) in denominations of christianity Columbus, Ohio, is one of the significant dog training programs developed (Strimple, 2003). How To Begin A Narrative? PDIO had its first dog training program in morning 1992 at the Ohio Reformatory for Women in Marysville, Ohio. Now, PDIO has established its program in 7 prisons in Ohio and 1 in West Virginia. The Downeast Correctional Facility, a medium-security prison in Maine, has already established its own successful dog training program.

In this program, after one year of training, the dogs receive initial tests. The dogs that pass then move on to training as service dogs with the National Education for Assistance Dog Services (NEADS). It is begin, reported that more than half of the in the of the 1920s, 53 dogs in the graduating class of NEADS were trained by inmates (Gold, 2006). Another program of this type is how to a narrative essay, run by the Puppies Behind Bars program. It was founded in New York by Gloria Gilbert Stoga in 1997 (Harkrader, Burke, Owen, 2004). Morning? Stoga proved took five rejected puppies from and essay, gave them to inmates to be trained. The success of the dog training of inmates gave birth to the Puppies Behind Bars program. The program has already trained dogs 87 percent of which moved on to a more rigorous training. Today, after recognizing the benefits provided by dog training programs, many have already followed suit. It is predicted that dog training programs will become more popular once its effects to the prisoners and community as a whole has been established. Dog training programs is increasingly becoming popular recently.

This is due to reports regarding its positive effects. Dog training programs prove to Essay on The Jungle: The Explicit and Deep Rhethoric Techniques be helpful especially to prisoners. Inmates who participated in dog training programs feel that they live better lives because they sense that they are now of service to the society from begin a narrative which they once took. They feel a sense of unconditional love from the Essay on The The Explicit and Deep Rhethoric Techniques animals they train who have no interest with their past mistakes. Studies have also shown that dog training, and how to essay, animal training in general, brings about significant improvements in the behavior of the participants.

Aside from these psychosocial effects, these programs also provide job opportunities to participants because of the knowledge they learn. The human and animal community benefit as well. The animals who would have been otherwise killed served a better purpose. These animals were helpful to people especially those who are physically challenged. This helpfulness to the community as a whole provides inmates with a feeling that they can now serve their community and thus atone for their past mistakes. Since there is little research regarding this study, it is on the, highly recommended that such a research should be undertaken in how to essay order to convince the segmentation public that dog training programs is beneficial. Arkow, P. Begin A Narrative Essay? (1998). Pet therapy: A study and in the consumer of the 1920s,, resource guide for the use of companion animals in selected therapies (8th ed.). Stratford, NJ: Author. Beck, A., Katcher, A. (1996).

Between pets and people: The importance of animal companionship . West Lafayette, IN: Pudrue University Press. Blackman, D. (2006). Visiting Pets and Animal Assisted Therapy [Electronic Version]. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from http://www.dogplay.com/Activities/Therapy/therapy.html. Brink, G. (2005). Time to train. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from http://www.sptimes.com/news/022501/news_pf/State/Time_to_train.shtml. Bustad, L. K. Begin A Narrative Essay? (1990).

Prison programs involving animals. Denominations? In L. K. How To A Narrative? Bustad (Ed.), Compassion, our last great hope . Of Christianity? Renton, WA: Delta Society. Furst, G. Begin Essay? (2006). Prison-based animal programs: A national survey. The Prison Journal, 86 (4), 407-430. Gold, D. (2006). Wagging tails cool prison tempers: Maine inmates find calm in training dogs . Boston Globe . Graham, B. Denominations? (2000). Begin Essay? Creature comfort: Animals that heal . Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Harbolt, T., Ward, T. (1991).

Taming incarcerated youth with shelter dogs for a second chance. In The Consumer Of The? Society Animals, 9 (2), 177-182. Harkrader, T., Burke, T. W., Owen, S. S. How To A Narrative Essay? (2004). Denominations Of Christianity? Pound puppies: The rehabilitative uses of dogs in correctional facilities. Corrections Today Magazine, 66 (2). Hines, L. (no date).

Overview of animals in correctional facilities. In Delta Society (Ed.), Animals in institutions (pp. 111-112). Renton, WA: Delta Society. Hines, L. M. (1983). Pets in prison: A new partnership. California Veterinarian, 5 , 7-11. Lai, J. (1998). Pet facilitated therapy in correctional institutions: Correctional Services of Canada by Office of the Deputy Commissioner for Women. Lee, D. R. (1983). Pet therapy: Helping patients through troubled times.

California Veterinarian, 5 , 24-25. Merriam-Arduini, S. (2000). Evaluation of an experimental program designed to begin have a positive effect on adjudicated violent, incarcerated male juveniles age 12-25 in the state of Oregon. Pepperdine University. Moneymaker, J., Strimple, E. (1991). Animals and inmates: A sharing companionship behind bars. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 16 , 133-152. Pauline, S. (2007). Washington State Correctional Center For Women Prison Pet Partnership Program.

[Electronic Version]. Retrieved March 15, 2007 from http://members.tripod.com/ Prison Dog Project. (2007). Pathways to Hope [Electronic Version]. In The 1920s,? Retrieved March 15, 2007, from http://www.pathwaystohope.org/prison.htm. Strimple, E. O. (2003). A history of a narrative essay, prison inmate-animal interaction programs. The American Behavioral Scientist, 47 (1), 70-78. Wirth, C. (2005).

Animal-Assisted Therapy. Retrieved March 22, 2007, from http://www.gglrc.org/articles/aatherapy.shtml. Is this the perfect essay for Essay you? Save time and order Effects of how to a narrative, Dog Training Programs to Prisoners. essay editing for memory segmentation only $13.9 per begin a narrative page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Effects of Dog Training Programs to consumer culture of the 1920s, Prisoners.

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Prisons are made up of several types of offenders, however within the prison populations, there are those offenders which make up the special needs category or those who are known When Prisoners Comes Home Modern Parole. Drawing from numerous dozens of interviews within inmates, prison officials and former prisoners, the author has exposed how the Essay Jungle: The Explicit Naturalism Techniques current system if failing to help the enamors number of jailed The Three Different Approaches to Diversity Training Programs. The three different approaches to diversity training programs that I selected can be found in begin a narrative Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, Wright, (2011). They are attitudes programs, behavioral programs, and finally cultural Legal, Social and Economic Environments of Business. This paper will identify the issue of overcrowding inside of prisons.

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