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Don'T Want To Write My Paper - She by H Rider Haggard: Book Review - Graeme Shimmin

book report primary Why do book reports strike terror in she, the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to Safe think and haggard she, write critically about what theyve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is cognitive triad, given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report.

Before you write, read. Theres no substitute for haggard reading the essay rate, book. Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. H Rider? Jotting down page numbers and The Bell, notes about haggard, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to frankenstein death write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in h rider she, the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. Essay Rate? After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process.

When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the haggard, writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. On Types Of Leadership Styles? In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to she say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Essay? Start your book report outline with the haggard she, following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Sociology? Summary of Book.

3. Book Details: Characters. She? 4. The Bell Essay? Book Details: Plot. 5. H Rider? Evaluation and Conclusion. Cytotec: Safe? In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the books title, author, genre, and haggard, publication information (publisher, number of william frankenstein death, pages, and year published). H Rider? The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by nandos mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the h rider she, author. Franchise Usa? Was the book a bestseller?

Is the h rider, author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book reportparagraphs two, three, and about or Deadly?, fouryoull describe what the book is h rider she, about. William Death? This is your chance to h rider haggard show youve read and usa, understood the book. H Rider She? Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot.

Specify who tells the The Bell Essay, story (point of h rider she, view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of usa, suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the h rider she, main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to cognitive triad solve. She? You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Franchise? Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on h rider she the main sequence of of Leadership, events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the books climax and h rider haggard, conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the authors use of cognitive triad, any literary devices youve been studying in class. H Rider She? Book Reports on Non-fiction.

If you are writing a book report on usa a biography or other factual text, youll want to devote the body of your book report to h rider haggard a description of the books subject and The Bell Jar Analysis Essay, the authors points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the h rider haggard she, authors ideas and nandos franchise, arguments in h rider she, an orderly manner. William Frankenstein Death? As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by h rider haggard the author. Essay Cytotec:? Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. Haggard She? If you read a biography, write about some of the of Leadership, important events in the persons life. Haggard She? Personal Evaluation and nandos franchise, Conclusion.

Youll like writing the haggard she, final paragraph because it is here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the protection of vulnerable adults, book. What are the books strengths and haggard, weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of death, fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to haggard she others.

Revising, Editing, and Jar Analysis, Publishing. After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to haggard follow the Essay, next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and h rider haggard, publishing. Begin revising by The Bell Jar Analysis Essay reading your book report aloud or to a friend for h rider haggard feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and nandos franchise, use of the h rider haggard she, correct guidelines for book quotes and symbolic sociology, writing the h rider she, book title. Frankenstein Death? Give enough time to revising and haggard, editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Symbolic Sociology? Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. H Rider Haggard She? A book report is essay rate, usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report.

Here is an example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the she, best American kids novel of the franchise usa, last decade. H Rider Haggard She? Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to symbolic sociology persuade their classmates to h rider haggard read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, dont reveal the ending! Rely on Cytotec: or Deadly? Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. H Rider Haggard? Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and nandos usa, one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and haggard she, high school, and cognitive triad, pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in haggard, helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.

Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in cognitive triad, your childs writing.

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H rider haggard she

Buy Essay Papers - She by H Rider Haggard: Book Review - Graeme Shimmin

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Trump Pick Monica Crowley Plagiarized Parts of Her Ph.D. Dissertation. By ALEX CATON and GRACE WATKINS. January 09, 2017. Monica Crowley, President-Elect Donald J. Trumps pick for a top National Security Council job, plagiarized numerous passages in her Ph.D. dissertation, Politico Magazine has found. An examination of the dissertation and the sources it cites identified more than a dozen sections of text that have been lifted, with little to no changes, from other scholarly works without proper attribution. In some instances, Crowley footnoted her source but did not identify with quotation marks the text she was copying directly. In other instances, she copied text or heavily paraphrased with no attribution at all. Story Continued Below. This finding comes on the heels of CNNs Saturday report that Crowley, the h rider she conservative author and commentator whom Trump tapped as senior director of strategic communications for the National Security Council, plagiarized more than 50 passages in her 2012 book What the (Bleep) Just Happened , copying directly from conservative columns, news articles, Wikipedia and in one case a podiatrists website. Despite the news, the Trump team continues to support the appointment. Any attempt to discredit Monica is nothing more than a politically motivated attack that seeks to william, distract from the real issues facing this country, a transition spokesperson told CNN.

The transition team did not reply to requests for comment for this story. Crowley submitted her dissertation, titled Clearer Than Truth: Determining and Preserving Grand Strategy: The Evolution of American Policy Toward the Peoples Republic of h rider haggard China Under Truman and Nixon, in 2000 in partial completion of her Ph.D. in international relations at New Yorks Columbia University. Today, the thesis is nandos franchise usa kept on microfilm at the University of Michigan and accessible via ProQuest, an she, academic database. By checking passages in the document against the sources Crowley cites, focusing on paragraphs that come before and after footnotes of key sources in The Bell, her bibliography, we found numerous structural and syntactic similarities. She lifted passages from her footnoted texts, occasionally making slight wording changes but rarely using quotation marks. She. Sometimes she didnt footnote at all. Parts of Crowley's dissertation appear to violate Columbia's definition of Unintentional Plagiarism for failure to 'quote' or block quote author's exact words, even if documented or failure to paraphrase in your own words, even if documented.

In other cases, her writing appears to violate types I and II of Columbia's definition of Intentional Plagiarism, which are, respectively, direct copy and paste and small modification by word switch, without quotation or reference to the source. The examples Politico Magazine found came primarily from six books and articles on U.S. The Bell Essay. foreign policy, particularly from h rider she Yale historian John Lewis Gaddis 1982 book Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of nandos usa American National Security Policy during the Cold War and Princeton World Politics professor Thomas Christensens 1996 book Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and h rider Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958 . Both Gaddis and Christensen declined to comment. Crowley, a former researcher for nandos franchise Richard Nixon while he was writing his last two books, conducted original interviews for she the dissertation with the former president and diplomats Henry Kissinger and Winston Lord. The dedication reads, For Harry Truman, Richard Nixon, Dean Acheson, and Henry Kissinger: Strategic Thinkers and cognitive triad Actors. Her thesis adviser, Professor of War and Peace Studies Richard K. Betts, declined to comment, as did Columbia University, which has previously rescinded at least one Ph.D. for plagiarism.

Crowley was previously accused of haggard plagiarism in 1999 when a reader in California noticed similarities between a Wall Street Journal column she wrote and a 1988 Paul Johnson piece in Commentary . After the Safe or Deadly? discovery, the Journal published an editors note in that weeks Friday edition that read, Had we known of the parallels, we would not have published the haggard article. Crowley's position does not require Senate confirmation. Below are several of the most notable examples of essay rate plagiarism we found. Public support is a fluid dynamic: given information and analysis by she leaders and elites, the public constantly weighs the benefits and prospects of success against cognitive triad, the likely and actual costs and h rider then reaches a determination as to whether the likely outcome is worth the sacrifice. As new events occur or objective conditions change, they are interpreted by political leaders and experts, and the ends and means are reevaluated. Cognitive Triad. Traditionally, U.S. military operations have been explained and justified both in normative terms (stressing the importance of the principles and interests at stake) and h rider haggard pragmatic terms (stressing the good prospects and essay rate reasonable costs of the involvement.) [42] Further, a focus on the particular objectives of the operation and haggard she the perceptions of the principles and interests that are involved establishes a connection between the objectives of the operation and the larger purpose behind it. In short, support can be thought of as a constant rebalancing of the benefits and cognitive triad prospects for success against the likely and actual costs and a determination of whether the h rider outcome is judged worth the costsall informed by leaders and experts. As new events occur or objective conditions change, they are interpreted by political leaders and experts, and the ends and means are reevaluated.

Such a model, engendering both normative and frankenstein pragmatic considerations, clearly has a great deal of intuitive appeal, but why should we believe that this is what is at work? First, as a practical matter, U.S. military operations are typically explained and h rider she justified both in normative termsstressing the importance of the principles and interests that are at stakeand pragmatic termsstressing the good prospects and reasonable costs of the intervention. Such a framework captures both theoperational code of political leaders and essay rate the enduring concerns of the public. Second, a focus on the particular objectives of the operation and the perceptions of the principles and interests that are engaged establishes a connection between the objectives of a given operation and the larger purposes it is promoting. Following the Cuban missile crisis, the Soviet Union embarked on a long-term program of h rider she increasing its strength in strategic weapons . As Gaddis points out, the Johnson administration decided not to respond with a corresponding military buildup for three main reasons: first, because it underestimated the extent to which the Soviets were building; second, because Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara was convinced that the Jar Analysis American strategic programs had reached the h rider point of diminishing returns ; and third, because the escalating costs of the Vietnam war made the administration reluctant to go to Congress with requests for expensive new systems to counter Soviet increases . [155] Following its humiliation in nandos franchise usa, the Cuban missile crisis, the Soviet Union embarked on she a steady, longterm program of bolstering its strength in essay rate, strategic weapons. The Johnson administration decided not to respond with a corresponding American buildup , partly because it underestimated the extent of what the h rider Russians were doing, partly because McNamara had become convinced that the point of diminishing returns in American strategic programs had been reached, but partly also because the mushrooming costs of the Vietnsam War made the administration reluctant to go to Congress with requests for expensive new systems to counter Soviet increases. Moreover, in order to test the approach against competing explanations , one needs to understand what individual leaders were thinking when they were developing or modifying the grand strategy and manipulating conflict, either by prolonging it or by resolving it.

An area specialist would be at cognitive triad an advantage over the generalist in applying the model to particular cases , though both benefit from the h rider she parsimony inherent in essay rate, the model. Finally, to test the approach against competing explanations it is important to understand what leaders were actually thinking when they were creating new grand strategies , launching mobilization drives, and manipulating or prolonging conflict with foreign powers. To complete this task, one needs to do archival research, sometimes in a foreign language. Haggard. All of these demands privilege the area expert over the generalist in applying the mobilization model to particular cases . Perceiving fundamental changes in the international balance of power, Truman in 1947 and Mao in 1958 decided to mobilize their nations around newly-designed long-term strategies to Essay on Types of Leadership, respond to those shifts and to preempt any resulting negative consequence. In both of Christensens cases, the security strategies were launched during peacetime, requiring creative and vigorous approaches to selling the strategies in order to haggard, persuade the public to essay rate, support them.

The apparently undesirable move of h rider manipulating or prolonging a short-term conflict with another nation then became useful in rallying and maintaining public support for the basic grand strategy . Viewing basic changes in the international balance of power, Truman in 1947 and Mao in 1958 decided to mobilize their nations around long-term strategies , designed to respond to those shifts . In both cases the cognitive triad strategies adopted required significant public sacrifice in peacetime, so the leaders faced difficulties in selling those strategies to their respective publics. The manipulation or extension of short-term conflict with the other nation , while not desirable on straightforward international or domestic grounds, became useful in gaining and maintaining public support for the core grand strategy. The generally accepted definition of cooperation is when actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others, through a process of policy coordination. This dissertation shall argue that perceived preferences are just as important as actual or anticipated ones, and that cooperation occurs when each side simultaneously affects the others calculations and h rider expectations until they reach some level of common interest. The policy coordination that is generated from reaching this level implies that the policies of each state have been adjusted to reduce , if not necessarily minimize, their negative consequences for the other states . This compound definition of cooperation involves several important principles. First, it assumes that each actors behavior is directed toward some goal or goals , which need not be the same for all of the actors involved, but that the behavior is rational and grounded in some degree of self-interest. Second , it implies that cooperation provides the actors with gains that they concluded could not be achieved through individualistic action.

The distribution of Essay gains need not be the same across the she board, but the gains are mutual . A notable feature of the recent literature on international cooperation is the acceptance of a common definition of the phenomenon. Following Robert Keohane, a number of essay rate scholars have defined cooperation as occurring when actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of h rider haggard others, through a process of policy coordination. Policy coordination , in turn, implies that the policies of each state have been adjusted to reduce their negative consequences for other states . This conception of cooperation consists of two important elements. First, it assumes that each actors behavior is directed toward some goal(s) . Cytotec: Safe Or Deadly?. It need not be the haggard she same goal for all the cognitive triad actors involved, but it does assume rational behavior on their part. Second , the definition implies that cooperation provides the actors with gains or rewards. The gains need not be in the same magnitude or kind for each state, but they are mutual . The numbers issue in international relations consists of the debate over the relative stability of bipolar and multipolar systems (which is really a debate about the impact of the number of significant players on h rider haggard international conflict and cooperation) and of the or Deadly? debate over the impact of hegemonic stability and international regimes on cooperation. [15] Numbers affect the potential for and success of cooperation in several ways.

First, cooperation requires the she recognition of opportunities for the promotion of Essay of Leadership Styles mutual interests, as well as policy coordination once they have been identified . In international relations, the numbers problem has been central to two debates. The longstanding controversy over the stability of bipolar versus multipolar systems reduces to haggard she, a debate over the impact of the number of significant actors on international conflict . A more recent controversy, between proponents of the theory of hegemonic stability and advocates of international regimes , reduces to a debate over the effects of large numbers on the robustness of cooperation. How do numbers affect the likelihood of cooperation? There are at least three important channels of influence. First, cooperation requires recognition of opportunities for the advancement of mutual interests, as well as policy coordination once these opportunities have been identified . This strategy was mapped out by Kissinger and his team in four foreign policy reports between 1970 and 1973 that set forth explicitly most of the fundamental elements of the Nixon strategythe use of negotiations to integrate the Soviet Union into the existing order; the idea of linkage; the Essay of Leadership possibility of h rider she a new relationship with China ; and the Nixon Doctrine often before events had taken place that made possible their realization. [15] There followed a detailed discussion, often at essay rate a philosophical level, that set forward with surprising explicitness most of the fundamental elements of the Nixon strategy the use of negotiations to haggard she, integrate the Soviet Union into the existing international order, the idea of linkage, the possibility of a new relationship with China, the Nixon Doctrine often before events had taken place that made possible their implementation. First, Nixon and nandos Kissinger sought to address the changing nature of power. States influence could no longer be measured by a single gauge such as military capabilities. With the Soviet Union rapidly approaching parity with the United States, the practical utility of nuclear weapons had further decreased. H Rider Haggard She. Kissinger had remarked repeatedly that the strategic balance had not affected the outcome of nandos franchise usa any crisis since 1962 . The constraints of public opinion and the problems of gradual escalation in Vietnam demonstrated the limits of h rider she conventional force . Franchise. And economic, territorial, and ideological resources were o f rapidly diminishing importance in h rider haggard, terms of real geopolitical influence.

Underlying all of essay rate these trends, notes Gaddis, the perception of power had become as important as power itself. [4] As Kissinger believed, it was no longer possible for the United States to think of the balance of power as a zero-sum game, in which gains for one side meant losses for the other .[5] Since policy had changed to h rider, recognize military, political, and essay rate economic strength as separate components of power, nations were freer to offset disproportionate strength in haggard she, one category by emphasizing their strength in another. It was possible under this definition, then, to have a multipolar equilibrium. A loss for the United States, as in Vietnam or in the Soviet gain of strategic parity, could be compensated for by gains in our own areas, as in the opening to China and a strategic arms control agreement. The individual areas of competition were deemed far less important than the overall measure of power-or the perception of Jar Analysis Essay it. Vietnam had skewed the American policy perspective; the objective of h rider she a reemphasis on cognitive triad global relationships was to restore it.

The first requirement for such a deepening was to recognize the multidimensional nature of power in the world: there was no single index by which the influence of states could be measured. Nuclear weapons , given the haggard she constraints on their use in an approaching era of parity , were of decreasing practical utility . Kissinger liked to essay rate, point out that in no crisis since 1962 had the strategic balance determined the h rider haggard outcome. Vietnam had amply demonstrated the cognitive triad limits of haggard conventional military force applied under constraints imposed by public opinion and the dangers of escalation. Ideology was proving to be a feeble force when arrayed against the compulsions of essay rate nationalism; territory bore little relationship to haggard she, political influence; economic strength seemed at Jar Analysis times to have little to do with any of h rider haggard these. And, underlying all of these complexities, there was the increasing importance of psychology: the perception of power had become as important as power itself. It was too simplistic, therefore, to continue thinking of the balance of power as a zero sum game, in which gains for frankenstein death one side invariably meant losses for the other . 6 What might appear as a loss in one areathe stalemate in Vietnam , for example, or the Soviet attainment of strategic paritycould be compensated for by gains in othersan opening to China , or a negotiated settlement on arms control . It was the overall calculus of power that was important, not the defeats or victories that might take place in isolated theaters of competition. She. The Kennedy and Johnson administrations had erred by making Vietnam a symbol of American power and The Bell Jar Analysis commitment throughout the haggard she world. The Nixon administration, taking advantage of Essay on Types Styles its more ecumenical definition of power, would seek to reduce Vietnam to its proper perspectivea small peninsula on a major continent, as Kissinger put it 7 and to concentrate on h rider haggard she global relationships. For example , even the The Bell few Chinese threats to enter the h rider she Korean war may have been more effective had Washington not been consumed with launching the new grand strategy.

Similarly, the need to william death, preserve whatever remained of that mobilization made Nixon more likely to curtail American involvement in Vietnam than he otherwise would have been. This may help to h rider, illuminate for Essay Cytotec: leaders why other leaders take the actions they do given a mobilization situation. If foreign leaders recognize that initial mobilization is often accompanied by a short- term but intense anti-foreign campaign, then they may avoid drawing incorrect and h rider she possibly dangerous assumptions from those actions. Further, if foreign leaders understand that a long-term mobilization is losing its momentum at home, they may be able to foresee a realignment of that nations foreign policy that may include more cooperative policies. In either case, it may not be necessary for foreign leaders to Essay, assume that such posturing will lead to long-term hostile or conciliatory policies. If Mao had understood American politics during the h rider haggard initial cold war mobilization, he might not have felt as threatened by American actions in Korea and Taiwan and may have resisted sending Chinese troops into Korea . For example, Chinese threats to enter the Korean War might have proven more effective . Not only did the needs of mobilization make Truman less likely to Essay on Types, compromise in Korea, but they precluded sturdy lines of communication and thereby muted Chinese deterrent warnings. On a more practical level, if foreign leaders understand that early-stage mobilization is h rider often accompanied by short- lived but fiery antiforeign posturing, then they might avoid drawing inappropriate and dangerous conclusions from the behavior of mobilizing states. On Types Of Leadership. There may be no reason for the challenged nation to infer irredentism or the inevitability of long-term aggression from a mobilizers hostile postures. If Mao had understood the haggard she politics of Cold War mobilization in the United States, he might not have concluded from frankenstein death American actions in h rider haggard she, Korea and Jar Analysis Taiwan that the United States was planning to h rider she, invade Manchuria.

He might not have felt as threatened by those American actions and therefore might not have felt compelled to send Chinese forces into Korea . A traditional realist, Kissinger believed that a more precise and effective conceptualization of interests required no illusions and the recognition that conflict and competition were immutable facts of international life . Franchise Usa. The United States would always have to haggard she, function within the international system, contrary to the idealists hope that someday the U.S. could extricate itself from the systems base and corrupting operations. For Kissinger, these unrealistic dreams distorted reality and policy, generating the wild extremes of or Deadly? isolationism and overextension . Accept the unpleasantries of the world, thought Kissinger, and she then design policy to manage them. [7] Despite the acceptance of diversity as an inevitable condition in world affairs, despite the recognition that it was not inconsistent with American security requirements, there lingered in Essay Styles, the United States, Kissinger believed, a reluctance to h rider haggard she, accept the fact that conflict and disharmony were and would continue to be inescapable characteristics of international life . There was still the belief that somehow the United States might transcend the international order, instead of simply having to operate within it. These unrealistic hopes, and the corrosive effects of reality upon them, had produced oscillations between isolationism and overextension in the American approach to the world. In addition to Vietnamization, another practical manifestation of the counterweight strategy was the war between India and Pakistan in william frankenstein death, 1971. The crisis stemmed from West Pakistans refusal to h rider, grant autonomy to the people of East Pakistan, separated by a vast expanse of Indian territory . As the crisis escalated, the administration, using Pakistan as its secret channel to the Chinese, cautiously refrained from criticizing the Pakistani government and delayed cutting off arms shipments to about, it , despite reports of selective genocide. [147] A similar myopia seemed to shape official attitudes toward Pakistan during that country's bloody civil conflict and subsequent war with India in h rider haggard, 1971. The crisis had arisen over Essay about Cytotec: Safe, West Pakistan's refusal to grant autonomy to the citizens of haggard East Pakistan, separated by some 1,000 miles of Indian territory . Officially sanctioned repression of the ensuing revolt there had grown to the stage, by March of cognitive triad that year, that State Department reports were speaking of selective genocide; later estimates would suggest that well over a million Bengalis had been killed. But the Nixon administration , intent on using Pakistan as an intermediary in its opening to haggard, Beijing, carefully refrained from criticizing the government in Islamabad and delayed cutting off arms shipments to it as long as possible. When Beijing stated its intention to downgrade relations with the United States unless the arms sales were stopped, the administration proposed reducing the sales gradually with no upgrading of the quality of arms involved. Usa. The Chinese continued to demand the complete cessation of sales and reverted to an earlier practice of equating the United States and Soviet Union as equally threatening hegemonic powers . [260] negotiation dragged along, with the US proposing a gradual reduction of haggard she arms sales with no upgrading of the quality of arms involved and death the PRC insisting that all sales be stopped.

To underline their point, the Chinese had reverted to their earlier and objectionable practice of equating the United States and Soviet Union as equally reprehensible hegemonic powers . Alex Caton is a 2015 Notre Dame graduate and a former James H. H Rider Haggard She. Dunn Fellow in the office of Governor Bruce Rauner. Grace Watkins is a senior at Notre Dame and a 2016 Rhodes and Truman Scholar.

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Mom vs. Mom: Work or Stay Home Essay. This research paper started with the intention of showing that mothers who stay home with their children as opposed to working outside of the home was better for child development. The results were surprising. The research began by exploring the attitudes of mothers toward each other. A number of stay-at-home mothers feel that working moms are neglecting their children in order to have it all, rather than make material sacrifices.(Lowery) Various working class mothers indicate that stay-at-home moms are soap opera watching couch potatoes with no ambition. (Walker). These mentalities have resulted in the societal war of Mom vs. Mom, pitting the working mom against the stay-at-home mom in a conflict over which model offers what is h rider haggard, best for the children. Many of essay rate, these attitudes are due to lack of education about the true effects of daycare for haggard, children.

Other problems arise because employers and essay rate, government policies are ignoring working families needs. In reality, stay-at-home mothers wear many hats. They are the h rider she family CEO, the day care provider, accountant, chauffeur, counselor, chef, nurse, laundress, entertainer, personal stylist, and on Types of Leadership Styles, teacher. reports that based on a 90-hour workweek, a fair wage for the typical stay-at-home mom would be $88,276 for executing all of her daily tasks. Factor in overtime, and the appropriate salary leaps to $112,797. (Robo) On the other hand, working mothers are pulling double duty by balancing work and family, and many are doing so with a divided heart.

They are not trying to have it all, but whether working by choice or necessity, they do have to do it all. H Rider Haggard! Both types of essay rate, mothers deserve credit where credit is due, yet the question remains, What is best for the children? There was a time when the primary role of women was to maintain the family and support their husbands in providing for h rider haggard, the family. During wartime, needs shifted and women were forced into the workplace because their husbands were away. Until the 1970s, many studies were biased toward the The Bell Essay negative impact of an unemployed male on his family or on the negative impact of the employed female on her family. (Ambrosino 484) Those studies influenced the hearts of haggard she, parents in our nation for decades. Stay-at-home moms feel studies that are more recent are biased toward alleviating the guilt many mothers feel from working outside of the home. That influence is still evident today as shown in the following survey done by of Leadership Styles,

Given the choice, more than half of all mothers would prefer to stay home with their children, at least part time. H Rider Haggard She! Only nine percent would choose to have a full time career. This graph may also reflect that parents feel daycare cannot provide the nurture a loving parent can, but do daycares really harm our children? To counter that inquiry, it is The Bell Jar Analysis, essential to look at the effects of childcare outside the h rider home in relationship to the care a child receives from a stay-at-home parent. The National Institute of Essay Cytotec: Safe or Deadly?, Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) released its most current study in April of 2001. They preformed a childcare study by following more than 1,300 children at 10 different sites across the country from birth into the school-age years. The. study looked at the interaction between child characteristics, the home environment and child-care settings to help explain how the children developed over time. (Todd) Their study confirmed that the hours spent in various types of haggard, care affected child development. More care by relatives was neither facilitating nor unfavorable to child development.

More time in william death home-based, non-relative care (defined as a non-relative caregiver who cared for the child in haggard she the study and at least one other child) was associated with better language outcomes during the toddler years (Todd) but lower language outcomes during the preschool years. There was no evidence that hours in center-based care during infancy had particularly negative effects on later development, at least through the early school years. Furthermore, by preschool years, children with more hours in center care displayed more advanced language and cognitive skills although caregivers also reported more behavior problems among children who had more hours in center-based care. (Todd) This could be linked to the discovery that center-based caregivers had higher levels of training and education, provided more language stimulation and more structured activities than home-based providers gave. Of Leadership Styles! The somewhat higher level of behavior problems in center settings suggests that it is important for care providers to supply experiences that promote social and h rider, emotional growth along with providing a cognitively enriching environment. (Todd) The study also showed that the number of hours in care also mattered. At age 4-1/2, 16% of the children who were in care 30 hours or more per week showed higher levels of problem behaviors (such as fighting) than children in essay rate fewer hours of care. This effect was also evident in kindergarten where 17% of the children showed higher levels of these behaviors.

It is h rider haggard she, important to note, however, that another study showed 16-17% of all children typically exhibit higher levels of about Safe or Deadly?, these problem behaviors. (Todd) Therefore, the h rider incidence of behavior problems for children in full-time care was no higher than that found in the general population of children. On the Essay on Types Styles other end of the scale, children in care less than 10 hours per week showed very low levels of she, problem behaviors. Cognitive Triad! Only six percent of these children demonstrated higher levels of these problematic behaviors at 4-1/2 years, although this increased to nine percent in kindergarten. (Todd) Earlier research has shown that children in childcare may also experience normal events sooner than children cared for at she home because of the nature of the child-care setting. For example, children in daycare tend to have more respiratory tract infections (also colds, ear infections, sore throats, flu, etc.) as preschoolers where children who stay at home tend to have more of these illnesses in william death later life. H Rider She! This may happen sooner for cognitive triad, children in daycare than for children cared for at home[because they are exposed to other children sooner.] (Todd) Finally, the quality of childcare, parenting, and the home environment was also related to childrens behaviors in the NICHD study. Children whose mothers were more sensitive and responsive to their needs displayed better pre-academic and language skills and had fewer behavior problems.

It is also important to note that in this research, it was discovered that the most important influential factor on h rider haggard, children, whether reared solely by a stay-at-home parent or in some form of childcare, was the parents attitude. Mothers who are working when they want to franchise usa be home negatively affect their children, as do mothers who want to be working when they want to be home. H Rider She! (Todd) While exploring possible answers to the question what is best for our children three things became clear after looking at the research done by NICHD: the william death amount of time children spent in care mattered, the attitude of the h rider parents mattered, and Safe, the quality of daycare and h rider she, home life environment mattered. The dilemma is, only essay rate, 28% of haggard, day care centers can be considered quality childcare. (Friedman) Quality day cares cost more money than lower quality day cares. (Knitzer) Some parents rely on family members to help care for their children while they work for financial reasons and because it is thought that family members have more emotionally invested with their children. While family members and/or friends can be helpful in providing quality care, friends and relatives can be burdened by the extra responsibilities, which only add to a mothers feelings of The Bell Jar Analysis Essay, guilt. It would be beneficial if there were more on-site, affordable, quality day cares provided by the employers. There are also studies that show children less than 9 months of age should be with their parents. (Phillips) Coupled with horror stories of daycares across the h rider haggard she nation like the ones found in Brian C. Nandos! Robertsons book in h rider haggard Day Care Deception: What the Child Care Establishment Isnt Telling Us it is no wonder parents are confused and torn between the need to stay home with their child or return to work. (Lowery) Many mothers work outside of the home for a variety of reasons and essay rate, have many different feelings about it. She! Some mothers want the self-fulfillment of having a career, while other mothers are economically forced to franchise usa work. During an interview with single working mother Margie, she revealed that working made her a better mother to her son. Working makes me happy. If Im not happy, thats going to spill over into our daily lives.

Staying home day in and day out would not be good for my son or me. Besides Im teaching him about good work ethic, pride, and enthusiasm, and still manage to h rider haggard do a lot of the things stay-at-home moms do. While the economy plays a large factor in Margies decision to work, she revealed that she is content in working because she knows her child is in a great daycare center and william frankenstein, she has very flexible hours but shes lucky. (Margie) While interviewing Jennifer, a married working mother of h rider haggard, two, it became clear that not all mothers are content working outside of the home. Ive had some horrible experiences with day care. Death! Its very hard for me to take off work when my children are sick. H Rider Haggard She! My net spendable income of about $1100.00 a month is whittled away by childcare, car maintenance, and Jar Analysis, other work related expenses. Jennifer explains that health insurance for herself and her family, along with the need for a retirement fund is the she driving force behind her working around 50 hours a week outside the home. Jennifer expressed that would love to cut her hours back to the minimum 30 hours per week needed to retain her benefits. She stated that her employers are not willing to franchise allow employees to reduce hours that much. (Jennifer) In order to do what is best for h rider she, the children we have to find a balance between keeping the parents and the children happy while meeting the needs of all parties involved. Work related expenses that keep moms who would like to work from working are no happier than moms who want to be home but cannot afford to be.

One of the core beliefs of group Mothers and More is that a mother is more than any single role she plays at any given point in her lifetime. She is entitled to fully explore and develop her identity as she chooses: as a woman, a parent, or an franchise usa, employee. (Mothers and More) Their goal is to h rider reorganize and redefine work such that the work of The Bell Jar Analysis Essay, caring for others is seen and treated as equal in value to paid work.(Mothers and More) Many of todays work policies and programs are still based on family and work demographics as they existed in the 1950s despite the fact that fewer than 10% of h rider, families in America can be classified that way. (Ambrosino 486) One of the ways Moms and More are trying to achieve their goal is to support legislation that ensures proportional pay, benefits and advancement for on Types of Leadership, part time and contingent workers. (Mothers and more) The organization would also like to raise awareness about how current tax policies affect family decisions and constrains the options available to h rider she parents for Jar Analysis, combining paid work and care giving over she, their lifetimes.(Mothers and Essay of Leadership Styles, More) An issue that is h rider haggard, a particular concern for moms who want to essay rate stay home is the impact of their absence from the haggard workforce when they are ready to go back. With more efforts to essay rate include all types of h rider, mothers by employers and government policies, many issues of guilt and the need for flexibility could be addressed. Guilt among women is bacteria gone wild, one that eats away their pleasures and ruins their lives. (Halcomb) Because of societal confusion about nandos usa, womens changing roles, the media tends to over report negative findings about day care and under report or misreport positive findings. It is important for mothers to h rider she feel that their work and daycare use is positive since prominent research shows that guilt and anxious feelings, not daycare,(Phillips) are what is damaging to childrens development. In somw cases, parents confuse feelings of guilt with feeling of missing their child.(Callahan) It is william frankenstein, also important to educate parents that some separation anxiety on both the parents part and the childs part is normal and not damaging. One growing trend that addresses the lack of flexibility in the workplace is h rider haggard she, a newer category known as Work at Home Moms. Many mothers are finding that working from home can meet many of the needs they are facing. If working from home in conjunction with the employer is not an option, starting a home based business might be an option. Yet the fear of no benefits keep many a mom from Cytotec: Safe working at haggard she home. (Folger) Saving for the future is cognitive triad, hard for many families and it is even harder when a person is h rider, self-employed.

Nevertheless, with some self-education about traditional, Roth, and rollover IRAs, work at home parents can have the same retirement benefits as any other self-employed worker. If health insurance cannot be obtained through the spouses employment, it can often be purchased through a private company, although often at a higher price. Another option might be extended paid maternity leave. There was a time when maternity leave was put in place in order to protect the mothers physical health. (Kamerman) Now other concerns, such as the well-being of the child and paternal involvement, are being addressed in countries such as Europe by implementing 14 weeks of nandos, paid leave for both parents. (Kamerman) Other countries offer up to a year in partially paid leave such as New Zealand. (Friedman) The Institute for h rider she, Child and nandos franchise, Family Policy states, The United States is alone among the advanced industrialized countries in the briefness of its statutory leave and among the very few countries with its unpaid leave. (Kamerman) Many parents cannot even afford to take the paternity and maternity leaves offered to she them because they need the cognitive triad money. It is our own country that inducing guilt and she, hardship on our families by not addressing the issues of todays society. There are many opinions about whether mothers should work or stay home with their children. There are as many studies to support whatever side a person stands on, all of which are in conflict. The fact is American employers and government should examine other countries plan to handle these types of issues and then apply the ideas.

Ann Crinntendon, author of The Price of Motherhood, points out that in Sweden, women are given a years maternity leave with 85% of their pay up to a certain ceiling. In addition, when they go back to work, they have the right to a six-hour workday with the law on their side. (Crinnntendon) Businesses in America are one of the last holdouts for Essay of Leadership, paid leave. While America may be one of the richest countries in this world, the most important job to America is still the least valued: parenting. Ambrosino,R., Heffernan, J., Shuttlesworth, G., and Ambransino, R,. (2001). Social Work and Social Welfare. (4th ed., rev.) Belmont. Brooks/Cole. Wadsworth.

Callahan, Patrick, (1999). Researcher Finds No Developmental Differences in she Children With Working Moms Versus Non-Working Moms. News Release, March 1, 1999. Homepage. Essay! Retrieved November 25, 2003, from Clark, Cindy. H Rider She! (2002). Jar Analysis! Work at h rider haggard Home Moms. Moms work at home day care. Retrieved November 28, 2003, from Crittendon, Anne. (2003). The Price of Motherhood: An Interview With Anne Crittendon.

Family Education Network. Retrieved November 25, 2003, from,1120,62-21810-0-4,00.html. Folger, Liz. (2001). What Do You Mean There Arent Any Benefits? The Busy Work at Home Mom. Retrieved on November 21, 2003, from Kamerman, Shelia. (2002). Institute for Child and Family Policy. Parental leave policies: An essential ingredient in early childhood education and care policies. Social Policy Report, Vol. Essay Cytotec: Safe Or Deadly?! 14, No.

2., 2000. Retrieved. November 21, 2003, from Lowery, Rich. (2003). Bring back the stay at home mom. Homepage. Haggard She! Retrieved November 26,2003, from Mothers and More. Cognitive Triad! (2003). Mission Statement.

Retrieved December 1, 2003. from Phillips, Deborah. Adams, Gina (2002). Child Care and Our Youngest Children. The Future of Children. Volume 11, Number 1 Spring/Summer 2001 Friedman, Dana. (2002). Employer Supports for Parents with Young Children Knitzer; Jane. She! (2002). Federal and State Efforts to Improve Care for Essay of Leadership Styles, Infants and Toddlers Retrieved November 21, 2003, from

Sutton, Kyanna. (2003). H Rider Haggard She! Do Working Moms Make Better Moms? Retrieved November 25, 2003, from,1120,62-287,00.html. Todd, Christine. (2001) NICHD Child Care Study Results: What do they mean for parents, child-care professionals, employers and decision makers? Child and Essay, Family Development University of Georgia. Retrieved November 28, 2003, from Walker, Julia. (2002)How Much are Stay at Home Moms Worth.

Homepage. Retrieved November 14, 2003, from University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 28 June 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Mom vs. H Rider She! Mom: Work or Stay Home. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?

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35+ Creative Ways to h rider List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and Essay on Types the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an she, impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the essay rate, position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use.

Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to she successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is nandos franchise utilized by [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to she simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to frankenstein detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an haggard, explanation of cognitive triad those skills. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in haggard your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and Jar Analysis Essay how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is greater for h rider haggard those who have been laid off or who have been out of Essay about Cytotec: work for she an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences.

Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of death who they are hiring, as well as the h rider haggard, interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of death skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them. Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and haggard discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the of Leadership, level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and haggard concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities.

Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Cytotec: Safe. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for haggard by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and Essay Cytotec: arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and h rider haggard she unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to cognitive triad express them on she, a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of cognitive triad what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the h rider, size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for nandos franchise usa jobs in a variety of fields.

Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of she strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by essay rate referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. H Rider. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and essay rate executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence.

Additional reporting by h rider she Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in Essay on Types of Leadership Styles 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in h rider the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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Essay mills: university course work to order. David Matthews investigates the scale and h rider, threat of the Essay about Safe or Deadly?, custom essay industry. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is clear. Graduates emerge from haggard university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Picture the following scenario: marking an essay by one of your more underwhelming students, you grow suspicious. You would like to be pleased by the unexpected quality of the work, but instead you feel a twinge that a sentence is franchise usa too neatly framed, as one scholar who has found herself in this position puts it.

The analysis is superb, the writing style good - but is it too good? It bears little resemblance to haggard, previous work by the same student: indeed, it is in a different league. But it has been through Turnitin, the academic plagiarism checker, and come back clean. Essay On Types Of Leadership! Has the student miraculously improved, or are you looking at a particularly pernicious problem afflicting todays higher education sector: the she, paid- for, custom-written essay? Custom essays, usually bought through websites known as essay mills, are in essay rate, some ways an academics worst nightmare.

Unlike standard examples of copy-and-paste plagiarism, they cannot be detected using software because they are original pieces of h rider haggard she, work - just not the students. Nandos Franchise! They also arguably represent an even more cynical form of cheating than, for she, example, regurgitating unattributed passages in a piece of submitted work. For many years, essay mills have been brazenly advertising their wares online, although they are always careful not to condone customers handing in bought pieces of work, arguing that the essays purchased are intended simply as useful guides or reference material. No one knows how big the market in custom essays is, or whether universities are managing to detect those students who do hand them in. Essay Rate! There are also concerns that in an age of mass higher education and high student-to-staff ratios, lecturers are less able to get to know their students work, making this form of cheating more difficult to detect. And there are fears that the pressures of the job might encourage some academics to h rider, turn a blind eye to the practice. But perhaps the william death, most important question is whether it is possible to prevent this form of cheating in the first place. Asking how many custom-written essays are being bought and sold in the UK is haggard she a bit like asking how long is cognitive triad a piece of string?, argues Thomas Lancaster, senior lecturer in computing at h rider haggard she Birmingham City University. Essay On Types Styles! For obvious reasons (including the fact that cheats do not want to be caught, essay mills operate online, and there are no official statistics), it is h rider she difficult to come by reliable figures.

However, Lancaster, along with his former colleague Robert Clarke, has attempted to quantify the franchise, scale of the problem. The pair studied a large sample of essay mill sites between March 2005 and June 2013, and identified nearly 19,000 attempts at contract cheating by students. While they examined websites that could be used by anyone anywhere in the world, a more detailed study of she, 59 postings in 2011 on one website,, found 18 references to assignments at UK universities. What we detected is the tip of the iceberg, cautions Lancaster. No one even knows how many essay ghostwriting sites there are on the web, but five years ago Lancaster and Clarke listed 158. In addition to the online activity, there is an Cytotec: or Deadly? unknown number of essay writers who advertise their work offline - even on campus. You get flyers pinned up on h rider haggard she, university noticeboards that say: Well do your work, Lancaster explains.

Then there are those who arrange contract essays socially, for friends, family members or students one or two years below them, who leave no public trace at cognitive triad all. Prices vary dramatically. An upper-second, five-page undergraduate history essay will set you back ?70 at the cheaper end of the market, but some sites charge in the region of ?150-?160. One website, which sells itself as a premier service, charges ?50 an hour. This may sound expensive, but it is loose change compared with the cost (particularly for haggard, international students) of having to retake a year. At the top end of the scale, postgraduate dissertations of Essay Cytotec: Safe or Deadly?, 25,000 words cost in the region of ?2,800.

Some essay writing companies are willing to provide more specific estimates of the scale of demand for their services, although the figures are self-reported and some academics say that the firms may exaggerate their popularity to h rider, attract publicity and gain more custom. Jennifer Wiss, business development manager at essay rate All Answers (which trades under a number of h rider she, names on the web, including, says that the essay rate, company dispatched 11,470 custom essays in 2012, of which three-quarters were ordered from UK IP addresses. This figure is difficult to haggard, verify, but the firms accounts appear to be consistent with a company selling essays in such quantities. Wiss estimates that a further 4,000 custom essays are written in the UK by Safe rival agencies each year (although students at h rider she British universities can also order from abroad). In 2005 Barclay Littlewood, who was then chief executive of All Answers (which promoted itself as UK Essays), estimated that the business was worth ?200 million a year and boasted that it had allowed him to buy a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of London, believes that custom-written essays are a problem, but thinks that some essay mills choose to exaggerate their size through the press because its good advertising. Its a very media- friendly problem. Whatever the Essay Cytotec:, number of essays being commissioned and the scale of the companies involved, information gathered by Times Higher Education under the Freedom of Information Act suggests that the h rider haggard she, number of custom-written essays being detected and officially reported is tiny.

THE asked UK universities to essay rate, provide details of the number of students they had disciplined in the academic years 2011-12 and 2012-13 for haggard, handing in custom essays or assignments bought from essay mills. Among the universities that responded to the request within 20 days, just 29 students were disciplined in 2011-12; in 2012-13, 30 students from 15 institutions were penalised. More than half the offenders hailed from outside the UK. Some argue that the high fees paid by international students and the need to write in Essay on Types, English (if this is not their first language) create greater incentives to cheat. Chasing plagiarists can be too much effort, Carroll says.

In any case, she is unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Wiss reports that for a significant number of All Answers customers, English is haggard a second language. She claims that many of these struggle to put their thoughts and ideas across, or to interpret their course material and lectures. I believe this is why they choose to use a service like ours. In Lancasters experience, both domestic and cognitive triad, international students use essay writing services, but he believes that a particularly serious and related issue is the haggard, matter of students paying for the translation of an nandos essay written in a foreign language before handing it in, a practice that can obscure plagiarism. As THE reported in August, some universities still lack clear policies on whether international students may use proofreaders or translators to h rider, help them with their work.

The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Lancaster even discovered one student who had attempted to outsource an assignment on nuclear engineering. Nandos! One of the scholars presentations on the subject asks: Do you want to live within five miles of this person? But there is also a more specific form of damage to the university. H Rider She! You need only one student to Essay about Cytotec: Safe, go to a job and not be able to do it for an employer to write off other graduates of that university, Lancaster argues.

He believes that employers have long memories and will warn other companies that certain alumni are not to h rider haggard, be trusted. So contract cheating has the effect of penalising honest students, he adds. Given the ethical issues, who agrees to work for the sites? The companies advertise themselves as employing graduates with good qualifications: an Essay on Types anonymous essay writer who wrote for THE in August says he is haggard she a recent Oxbridge graduate who was asked to provide evidence of his qualifications and essay rate, samples of his writing when applying for the job. H Rider She! Some companies claim to employ staff with at least 2:1 degrees, interview potential candidates and essay rate, ask them to haggard she, complete trial assignments.

Many contract essay companies justify their trade by arguing that they are simply showing uncertain students how to write. Many students just want to essay rate, see how its done, says Wiss, who also claims that the vast majority of she, All Answers customers do not hand in Essay of Leadership, their purchased essays. This might be more convincing if All Answers did not run its essays through plagiarism checkers before sending them on she, to clients - a common practice in the industry. Why do this unless customers want to Jar Analysis, hand them in? Wiss claims that this is to make sure that its writers are spending the time they are paid for on haggard she, the project and not cutting corners. In line with many in the business, All Answers tries to blame universities for the rise of the about Safe, essay mill. H Rider Haggard She! Institutions admit international students who can barely string a sentence together, Wiss claims, while others are thrown in at the deep end when they start university. However, claims that custom essays merely help students with their own original work are disingenuous, according to a spokesman for Universities UK. Such essays often cost several hundred pounds, will specify the grade they require [2:1, 2:2, etc] and are purchased invariably to meet clear deadlines, he says.

The anonymous essay writer offers a number of william death, clues that he says may help to alert academics to custom-written essays. Essay writing agencies generally require writers to submit their work in a standard format, he explains, often including a contents page and chapter headings, regardless of length. If you didnt ask your students to submit a 2,000-word essay in this format and you get a contents page, etc, then this might raise an alarm, he says. Ghostwriters often lack access to full journal articles, and so rely heavily on first-page previews from journal sites or Google Books. Really probe the references, because this is the weak part, he advises. Jude Carroll, an education consultant at Oxford Brookes University and a plagiarism expert, thinks academics should not be afraid to be aggressively investigative if they smell a rat. If there are suspicions, she suggests, staff should call students in and ask them to explain unusually complex words or obscure references they have used. The biggest worry for academics who have such suspicions is h rider haggard that they lack proof, she says - but that is death no excuse for inaction.

Theres no support for the argument about proof. Students cant question academic judgements. You dont have to be [100 per h rider haggard cent] sure, you have to weigh the Essay, balance of probabilities - and be at least 65 per cent sure, she thinks. But for another academic, who asks to remain anonymous, launching an investigation is not that simple. Im ashamed to admit it but you simply dont have the h rider, time to william death, launch a plagiarism case, she says. One colleague, the same academic recalls, had to almost google every line of a suspect essay and make several trips to the library to ascertain whether her fears about a piece of work were genuine. In a competitive research excellence framework environment, chasing plagiarists can be too much effort, she says. In any case, she is also unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating.

Universities have a real anxiety about the litigation culture and h rider haggard she, are anxious about academics exercising their judgement. When offenders do get caught, Carroll says, the punishments for handing in contracted essays are highly variable. She finds this worrying because penalties are a major determinant of how likely students are to cheat. I believe students should be thrown out if caught, she says. Its fraud. However, according to the results of cognitive triad, THE s FoI request, most students who cheat in this manner can expect to remain on h rider haggard she, their courses. Of the 59 students who were caught handing in bought essays in 2011-12 and essay rate, 2012-13, just 13 were expelled. In one case at Newcastle University, for she, example, an cognitive triad international student suspected of handing in work purchased from the site was given a final written warning but no other punishment. Many believe that academics first line of h rider, defence against custom essays is to set assignments that are difficult, if not impossible, to william death, outsource. The anonymous ghostwriter advises scholars to ask their students to draw on lectures and class discussion when setting essays. This is something that is either less visible or invisible to the ghostwriter, he explains, and h rider haggard, therefore much more difficult to achieve.

Questions that require close engagement with a particular text are also more difficult to frankenstein, outsource, he says. Chances are I wont be able to do this as well because I wont have that book to hand. If asked to, I have a problem. He also cautions against sending out lecture notes in electronic formats or putting them online, because this only makes it easier for haggard, ghostwriters to give the Jar Analysis Essay, impression of having attended courses. However, the she, Equality Challenge Unit points out that students with disabilities might find taking notes during lectures difficult or even impossible, and some departments require academics to nandos usa, provide lecture notes to all students for this reason. Some essay questions appear time and time again, making them easier for h rider haggard, contract writers to complete, so one obvious piece of nandos franchise usa, advice from plagiarism experts is to avoid setting assignments on h rider haggard she, predictable topics such as women in essay rate, Dickens. Scholars might also set students presentations or tests based on their written submissions, which can identify those who have not done the work themselves. In 2007, Google banned advertisements for essay writing services on she, its website, a move welcomed by UUK. Couldnt the government introduce a blanket ban on the companies?

A spokeswoman for cognitive triad, the Department for Business, Innovation and h rider haggard she, Skills suggests that this would be impossible under current law. Whether a student and/or writing service have committed an offence would be for cognitive triad, a court to haggard, decide and depend on the individual circumstances of the case, she says. There is no action BIS could take to address this. Another drastic option is suggested by the tale of a US professor, recounted by Lancaster, who set himself up as a contract essay writer to test the waters, only to usa, find one of h rider haggard she, his own assignments out to tender. He wrote it, and when one of his students handed it in, he revealed himself as the author. Wiss maintains that All Answers is very keen to work with universities to provide a service that cant be abused in the first place - but only if universities agree that the company is a legitimate source of academic help. The UUK spokesman declines to comment on this and says: More should be done to clamp down on these essay companies. He adds that the body does not have any specific proposals to tackle the problem (although suggestions are welcome). So there does not appear to be any systematic solution to essay mills on the horizon, and responsibility for detecting and death, dealing with the issue continues to h rider she, rest with individual academics and The Bell, their universities. If academics really want to catch these essays, they are going to haggard, have to spend more time engaging with their students submitted work, concludes the anonymous essay writer. Some may be left wishing that they had more time to do just that. Nothing to hide (except your details) Although using our service is essay rate not cheating, and you have nothing to hide if you use the service responsibly, we still take your privacy very seriously We never share details of your order with your university. First class in my chemistry coursework was unbelievable. thanks. - Theo, Manchester.

Universities sometimes warn students against using companies like ours, which goes back to haggard, the days when the cognitive triad, custom essay industry was underhand and untrustworthy. Were actively involved in re-educating them and changing their perspective. Just wanted to send a note to say thanks. Your paper helped me get a 2:1 for haggard she, my degree!! I can now apply for my Masters! Thanks ever so much!! Do you write to Masters level? - Lucy, Stratford-upon-Avon. Set students short tests or presentations based on essay rate, their essays. Ask students to write their essays with reference to lectures or class discussions. Haggard! Set unusual questions or ask for analysis of usa, set texts as this could put off potential ghostwriters. If you suspect an she essay may not be a students work, ask them to explain the key words, concepts and research. Death! Check references: ghostwriters often do not have access to she, full journals or books, so may be able to reference only the franchise usa, preview pages of online articles.

If an essay seems overly formatted, for example, with a contents page and chapters, this could be because of a standard format used by essay companies. Google your assignment questions: you may find that they are out to tender. Click here for more on she, preventing plagiarism. Registration is free and Cytotec: or Deadly?, only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register. Or subscribe for unlimited access to: Unlimited access to news, views, insights reviews Digital editions Digital access to THEs university and college rankings analysis Unrestricted access to the UK and global edition of the THE app on haggard she, IOS, Android and Kindle Fire Subscribe. Already registered or a current subscriber? Sign in now.

Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)/Vice-President. Research Assistant/Research Fellow in Modelling Root Traits to Bio-engineer Soil. Lecturer in nandos, Data Science - Data Sciences with Analytics. Digital Marketing and Recruitment Executive. Last week, the UKs universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the prime minister without a strong justification. We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and dysfunction at h rider haggard the heart of academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over cognitive triad what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan.

We need to call off the witch-hunt and trust in h rider haggard she, the capacity of our students to Essay on Types of Leadership Styles, learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Lack of job security, limited support from management and weight of work-related demands on she, time among risk factors. If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of our subscription and get unlimited access to all of Times Higher Education 's content? You'll get full access to our website, print and digital editions, and the Times Higher Education app for iOS, Android and Essay Cytotec:, Kindle Fire devices.